This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
After the apparatus is properly charged, the syrup ready and the bottling machine in order, also after the corks have been previously well prepared according to the directions given under "Corks," proceed as follows:
Place the bottle in position as shown in illustration, and press down the foot lever until the filling head is held firmly on the mouth of the bottle, (on some bottling machines the bottle is raised upwards and pressed against the filling head). With the right hand raise the hand lever, and place with the left the cork evenly in the cylinder, drive the cork about halfway through the filling head and hold it there in order to close the mouth of the cylinder tightly; with the left hand on the syrup-gauge lever, make one stroke, holding open until the bottle fills, thus injecting the required amount of syrup into the bottle and allowing it to be filled with the beverage. The syrup gauge is previously set to gauge exactly the required amount of syrup. Then push back the gauge lever to its place, at the same time driving the cork into the bottle with the hand lever. Release the foot lever sufficiently, allowing the bottling cylinder to rise, meanwhile holding down the cork with the hand lever, and put the wire fastener securely over the cork, when the foot may be taken from the treadle and the bottle removed from the machine.
In bottling plain waters, some syrup gauges allow to disconnect the rod from the lever of syrup gauge, to disconnect the pump, and a plain cock may then be used instead.
The air or escape valve of filling head, through which the air naturally contained in the empty bottles escapes and is forced out by the pressure of the carbonated water, should be set to allow the escape of the compressed air at the required bottling pressure, without wasting the beverage. Be sure that it is not screwed up so tight as to prevent its opening while filling, to let the air pass out. To put the wire over the cork on bottling stands where the bottle is raised upwards and pressed against the filling head, ease up on the treadle, and at the same time follow the cork with the plunger until the treadle brings up solid on the base, which will give plenty of room to arrange the wire. It is recommended to use a little lard on the passage way of the cork while a bottling machine is new, until it gets smooth by passing of the corks. The elastic packing in the filling head of the bottling machine has to be renewed whenever a leakage is visible. The ragged edges of some bottles and continuous bottling will wear it out.
If a bottle requires more syrup than a gauge throws at one time, say four ounces, throw twice, each time two ounces.
To operate with bottling attachments for Hutchinson's Stoppers, the following directions are given :
To fill the Bottles with a Plain Hook: - Place the bottle under the cylinder ; catch the hook in the stopper ; then lower the cylinder to the bottle; open the syrup and water gauge; when filled, close the syrup gauge, draw up the stopper, and raise the cylinder. The bottle is filled.
Fig. 249. Elastic Packing.
Fig. 250. - Automatic Rod.
To Bottle with Automatic Bod: - Place the bottle under the cylinder; lower the cylinder to the bottle ; open syrup and water gauge ; when filled, shut off the syrup gauge, lower the rod, and pull up and the bottle is filled.
To Bottle with Guide Hook: - Put the bottle under the cylinder ; lower the cylinder upon the bottle; open syrup and water gauge; when filled, shut off syrup gauge; lower hook, and pull it up again, and bottle is filled and stopper closed. Always turn guide towards the operator putting in and taking out bottles.
Fig. 251. - Guide Hook.
When it is desired to feed two or more bottling machines at the same time from one fountain, distributing cylinders of copper or iron are employed. Such cylinders, which must also be well tin-lined, are designed to be suspended from the ceiling near the benches, thus avoiding long hose-connections and be out of the way. These cylinders equalize the pressure for all attached bottling machines, and are a great convenience in any large bottling establishment.
This (Fig. 253) is another device for the same purpose. It saves a multiplicity of pipes from condensing cylinders to various filling machines, and at the same time enables a mineral-water manufacturer to use any one, two, or three cylinders, either combined or separate, to any or more, up to six filling machines, by the simple turning "of the taps marked A, B, C. The pipes D being in direct communication with the filling machine, and the unions A, B, C, with the condensing cylinders, the contents say of three different kinds can be instantly diverted to any one or all of the filling machines. This apparatus can be fixed to any number of cylinders and filling machines.
Fig. 252. - Distributing Cylinder.
Fig. 253. - Multiplier.
For the safety of the operator, to protect him against injury from the glass fragments of bursting bottles, safety screens are attached to the bottling machines as seen in the illustrations. Instead of them, or even besides, wire bottle-screens are used, especially where beverages under high pressure in pint or quart bottles are to be filled, and their employment affords greater safety or protection. These bottle screens are made of steel wire, well tinned, and are strong and durable. Other appliances for protection and safety for face and eye are wire masks and wire eye-protectors; for hands "bottling gloves" are used. When a moderate and standard pressure is maintained for ordinary bottling the safety screens attached to the bottling machines afford all the protection that is necessary; for bottling highly charged beverages in large-sized bottles, it is well to care for additional protection by employing the other appliances.