This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
The usual pressure to bottle at should not exceed 60 to 80 lbs. for saccharine beverages. Plain soda waters are frequently bottled at from 80 to 100 lbs., syphons at from 120 to 140 lbs. of pressure. Carbonated beverages going to hot climates should not be charged higher than 30 to 45 lbs.; but the liquid must be thoroughly agitated to impregnate it with gas. No greater mistake is made by bottlers than when they attempt to charge their beverages with an excessive high pressure, as explicitly demonstrated and explained under "Carbonic Acid Gas". They are in error when they attempt to estimate the pounds of gas-pressure at which their goods are bottled by the figures the gauge may register. The gauge may register a certain figure, indicate the proper pressure within the apparatus, but the gas-pressure in the bottles, as we know already from the experiment made and shown in the interesting table appended in the Chapter on Carbonic Acid Gas, is usually less than half what is confidently stated. A careful test reveals the fact that the average pressure in carbonated beverages is about 56 pounds per square inch when filled from cylinders at a pressure of 145 pounds per square inch. When filled from cylinders in which the carbonated water is at a pressure of 100 pounds, the pressure on the bottle is, on an average, nearly 49 pounds per square inch. The pressure in the champagne bottles during fermentation reaches, and in some cases exceeds, a pressure of seven atmospheres, or an average of about 105 pounds per square inch. It is not necessary to have a heavy pressure on if the cylinder is kept cool. The water will only absorb a certain quantity of gas; over that the gas is not in solution, and of no utility whatever, except to burst bottles. In warm weather the cylinder should be kept cool by wet cloths and cold water dashed on frequently.
Fig. 254. - Wire Bottle Screen.
Fig. 255. - Wire Mask.
Fig. 256. - Wire Eye Protector.
Complaints of the bursting of bottles are frequent. This is due to overcharged or badly annealed or cracked bottles, and they burst nearly always in the process of bottling, as it is at that moment that the greatest pressure is inflicted upon them. The exploding of bottles afterwards is partly due to the same cause, but also to changes in temperature and rough treatment while on transportation and other similar causes.