This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
The Operation. - Filling Machines. - Syruping Apparatus. - Syrup Recepta-cles. - Practical Bottling. - Bottling Pressure. - Testing Carbonated Bev-erages. - Expelling of Air in Bottling. - Sanitary Condition of Bottling Establishment. - Suggestions. - Storage and Shipment of Carbonated Beverages. - Boxes and Crates.
The operation of bottling carbonated beverages is now almost universally performed by the means of Bottling Apparatus, which renders their manufacture much more profitable. The filling-machines may be placed at any convenient distance from the apparatus, the length of pipe only has then to be increased. This connecting-pipe is better throughout of pure block-tin. On American apparatus a flexible rubber hose is attached to connect with the apparatus, which should be of the best kind, compact, and stand the required bottling-pressures; it can be preserved and protected by laying it in melted paraffine of 100° C. (212° F.).
The following illustration represents a type of the bottling-machines in use in the United States for bottling beverages.
Fig. 224 shows the apparatus arranged for bottling with corks, the Matthew's plunger syrup gauge attached. The description is as follows: a and b, gauge screws to cork gauge f, and d, cork gauge. This attachment enables all the corks to be driven uniformly and to the proper depth into the mouth of the bottle. When the cork is well in, the bottling-cylinder may be raised sufficiently to allow the cork to be readily secured with the cork-fastener, c is an air valve or escape valve for the atmospheric air in bottle; e, cylinder rods; g, bottling-cylinder with rubber" packing inside; ht automatic screen; i, quart pot; j, pint pot; k, hand lever; l, walking-beam of the automatic screen; m, foot lever; n, balance weight of the automatic screen; o, and p, suspension rods of spring; r, syrup-cock of syrup gauge; u, cap of water valve of syrup gauge; x, lever of syrup gauge; y, balance weight of hand lever.
Fig. 224. - Matthews1 Bottling Table.
When Hutchinson patent stopper bottles are used, it is necessary to adjust a special bottling attachment for stoppers into corking tables, or use a special bottling-machine, as illustrated by the next figure.
The bottling or filling part of this machine is called the "Hutchinson Attachment," and may be adjusted into the corking machines. To do so, remove the cross bar that holds the cork plunger, also remove the filling head. Put in the stopper attachment, and have the bracket that holds the lever for pulling up stoppers between the cross bar holding filling head and back nut that holds the filling head in place. This gives the lever ample play, so that the stopper can be pulled to its closed position.
Fig. 225. - Hutchinson Bottling Table and Attachment.
This machine is put up by James W. Tufts, to be employed only where patent stoppered bottles are used.
The next cuts represent types of bottling apparatus in use in England, Germany, France, etc. For filling ball-stoppered or any other kind of internal stoppered bottles, bottling-machines of various devices are offered. For filling syphons special syphon fillers, with or without syrup gauges, are employed.
Figs. 229 and 230 show the "Monarch Turnover Filling Machine" (patented), with syrup pump. It is especially adapted for internal bottled stoppers (glass ball stoppers) and is adjusted with air valve to permit the escape of air from the bottles.
Fig. 226. - Tuft's Plain Bottling Machine.
A filling and corking apparatus (Fig. 231) for power is represented by the next illustration.
Where a large cork trade is done, this power machine is a practical and convenient means for driving in corks satisfactorily and at a great rate of speed. It is fitted with syrup pump and cork feeder. The bottles are directly delivered to the wirers. During the filling process the atmospheric air is removed from the bottles. It can be stopped in a moment. It is automatic in its action, each motion following in rotation, and fills each bottle to the proper height. The power required to work is very slight, and it is claimed that one boy or girl can syrup, fill, and cork 60 to 70 dozen per hour, with ease.
Fig. 227. - English Filling Machine.
Another automatic syruping and filling machine for patent stoppered bottles is represented by Figure 232. A sectional view of this machine is shown in the "General arrangement of Soda-water factory" on page 199. They are made for large and small factories, " onebottle" and "two-bottle" machines with stationary bottle rests. Every machine has two sizes of cork cones and plungers, striking gear, shoot for bottles, spanners and holding down bolts. It can be worked by one girl, who has only to feed the machine, the discharge being automatic. Any size of bottles will be filled and syruped. The filled bottles are delivered to the wirer automatically. A guard is in front of the bottles when at work. The illustration (Fig. 233) represents another pattern of a power bottling machine, The machine, as shown in this illustration, is of English manufaeture also, and consists of an upright massive frame, on which revolves a large disc, driven by geared countershaft at back, provided with fast and loose pulleys and fly-wheel. At each revolution of this disc a bottle is syruped, filled, snifted, and corked. The operator stands facing the machine, and with the right hand places a bottle on the block, and with the left removes a full one and passes it to the wirers. As the machine supplies itself with corks automatically, a few moments' practice is sufficient for the bottler to learn the movements. This filling and corking machine will, it is claimed, syrup, fill and cork from 50 to 80 dozens per hour of every description of carbonated waters, in all sized bottles.
Fig. 228.- French Filling Machine.
Pig. 234 is quite a new and ingenious machine for filling internally stoppered bottles by steam power whilst such bottles are in the boxes. This invention dispenses entirely with the necessity of handling the bottles, thus obviating the labor of the ordinary manner of filling internally stoppered bottles. A box is placed on the machine and the bottles are filled either three, four or six at a time.
The latest machine introduced to the trade in the United States for bottling and closing or sealing the bottles is illustrated by Fig. 235. This bottling-machine for carbonated beverages is constructed on the same general principles as those used for corks, and is composed entirely of metal. It is specially constructed for the employment of the "Bottle Seal," which we describe under "patent stoppers" later on. An automatic "snifter" and overflow economizer are especially notable, while the filling and corking is governed by the treadle alone; a safety relief valve relieves the bottles of excessive gas pressure when sealed, allowing it to escape from the bottle, at the moment of sealing.
Figs. 229 and 230. - Monarch Turnover Filling Machines.