This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
When carbonated beverages are prepared for storage they must be made and bottled with extra care.
The storage room should always have a normal temperature; in summer sufficiently cool, in winter not exposed to cold. The temperature of the storage room should not differ much from that in the bottling room. Bottles in storage burst more frequently soon after they have been filled, therefore care should be taken to reduce the temperature and thereby the pressure in the bottles just particularly at that time. The pressure in the bottle is quite a considerable one, as the following figures, taken from Dr. Hirsch's table, will show. It is about two lbs. per cubic centimeter for every atmospheric superpressure (that is, for every indicated 15 lbs. of pressure); he calculates that the inner surface of the bottom of a bottle of about 675 grammes contents, measures about 40, the sides 310, the shoulder 35, the neck 20 cubic centimeters. At 3 atmospheres (45 lbs.) the pressure would be Upon the inner side of the bottom about . 240 pounds.
" " " " sides " . . 1860 "
" " " " shoulder " . . 210 "
" " " " neck " . . 120 "
" " " " altogether " . . 2430 "
While the under surface of the cork according to size stands about 12 to 20 lbs. of pressure.
Any rise of temperature causes an increase of pressure in the closed bottle, and any lowering temperature a reduction of that pressure. The expansion of carbonic acid at temperature variations is expressed in figures thus:
At usual atmospheric pressure, . .. 0.00370.
At a pressure of five atmospheres for 1° C. nearly, . . 0.0040.
The difference caused in variations of temperature may amount to 1/2 atmosphere (8 lbs.) and over within the closed bottle.
Bottle racks, as represented later on, or similar arrangements, are practical contrivances in storing bottled beverages, combining safe storage with convenience.
For storage, and especially for shipping bottled beverages, the elastic wood fibre or the corrugated packing or wrappers contribute to safer shipment and lessening of breakage. The above illustrations explain the services to which it may be advantageously employed. This wood fibre packing is manufactured from elastic wood fibre, is very flexible, can be made in any shape or size, is of light weight, neat in appearance and not liable to breakage. The wrapper for single bottles consists of a square of packing of any desired size, which is placed in a sheet of ordinary wrapping paper larger than the packing. The outer edge of the latter has a coating of mucilage, which it is only necessary to moisten before folding. When the bottle is rolled up the ends of the wrapping paper are turned in. Cardboards in various shapes, rolls, etc., are also employed for wrapping bottles.
Fig. 259. - Elastic Wood Fibre Packing.
Straw-covers are the most familiar ones, and have ever been used for wrapping champagne or other wine bottles. They are equally adapted for shipping fruit-champagnes or any other kind of carbonated beverage that is intended for export.