This apparatus, Fig. 168, consists of two generators, each with three purifiers at the side, an equalizing valve, three cylinders, with water gauges, and an extra pressure gauge and an injection pump.

A, Outer shell or case; A, the shaft; B, the sheet-tin lining; C, Trap to carbonate the water; D, handle; E, crank lever; F, pointer to quantity or surface index; G, valve wheel; H, opening for escape of gas or water; I, valve socket; K, set screw to tighten crank; L, opening for escape of gas or water; M, round or square packing; O, the flanges.

Gas is produced in the usual way in one of the generators, and the prescribed amount of water pumped into the cylinders.

The equalizing valve of the first generator is set at the desired pressure by means of the pressure-gauge on the cylinders. The equalizing valve preserves a constant pressure of any desired number of pounds to the square inch in the cylinders, by preventing a higher pressure than that at which it is set from passing. A lower pressure will always pass, however, allowing the water to be charged to any lower pressure. The water in the three cylinders is then charged with gas.

As the water is exhausted from each cylinder, it is replenished by means of the pump. When the charge in the generator is nearly exhausted, the second generator is prepared for use, and the foregoing operations may be repeated indefinitely.

The apparatus is provided with acid-valve gears, low-pressure blow-off cocks, water gauges, large generator-fill-ing bungs, tinned cylinder bungs, large cylinder water-inlet cocks, block tin water-inlet pipe, linings made from single sheets. All cocks, couplings, and pipes through which water passes are lined with block-tin pipe. If desired the apparatus can have wheels with flat faces for power. The apparatus is so arranged that if it is desired to fill syphons, one of the cylinders can be separated from the others and made independent of the regulating valve. This is done by closing two cocks and opening a third, and allows the cylinder to be charged to high pressure for syphons, the regulating valve meanwhile maintaining a low pressure in the other two cylinders.

A, Frame to sustain the two valves; B, lower valve-case enclosing valve and elastic diaphragm; C, upper valve to regulate flow of gas to saturator; D, vertical rod connecting upper and lower valves; E, lever with weights which regulate pressure automatically; F, pipe connecting with saturator; G, pipe connecting with generator; H, bracket to sustain the valve when screwed to a support.

Tuft s Carbonating Apparatus 167

The manufacturer's directions for operating are the following: "Set up the apparatus as shown in the illustration. Having securely closed all valves, bungs and connections, and connected the inlet pipe of pump with the water supply, remove the clamps and caps from filling bungs of cylinders; open the water-gauge cocks and the cocks below the cylinders; start the pump, and thoroughly clean the cylinders by pumping them full of water and drawing it off by means of the cock at end of water supply pipe. After drawing off the water, close the cock at the end of water supply pipe and pump the cylinders full of water Close the cocks below the cylinders, and replace the caps and clamps on the filling bungs, closing them securely.

"Charge the first generator and fill the purifiers three-fourths of pure water, the colder the better, and close tightly, then proceed to charge the water in the cylinders the first time. Close the equalizing valve on the first generator by turning back the top handle and taking it entirely out, and open the cock between the equalizing valve and the cylinders. Close the cock between the equalizing valve of the second generator and the cylinders, to prevent the gas from passing into the second generator. (These cocks are not shown in illustration.) Give the vitriol valve on the generator one-half turn to the left; let it remain in that position from twelve to fifteen seconds, or until the pressure gauge indicates about ten pounds, then close it firmly, but not with too much force. Turn the agitator slowly until the indicator hand of the pressure gauge remains at a fixed point, which shows that the amount of vitriol let down has been exhausted and made all the gas it is capable of. Let down more acid and repeat the operation as before, until the desired pressure (150 to 180 pounds) is obtained. Open the gas-inlet cocks of all the cylinders, and set the equalizing valve by returning the top screw and handle and turning down very slowly, turning the cylinder agitator briskly meanwhile, until the pressure gauge on the cylinders indicates the desired pressure (40 to 60 pounds). Before agitating, open the cock at the end of water supply pipe and allow the water to escape until the cylinders are but two-thirds full. This method of proceeding, i.e., filling the cylinders full and allowing one-third to escape while the gas is flowing in, displaces the atmospheric air. Continue to agitate the water and gas in the cylinders until gas ceases to pass over from the generator. The passage of the gas may be known by the clicking of the equalizing valve, as it automatically opens and closes. The water in the cylinders is now charged. Open the outlet cock of the first cylinder, and allow the charged water to pass to the bottling tables. As the water is drawn off from the cylinder the pressure will be maintained by the automatic action of the equalizing valve. When the water in the first cylinder is exhausted, close the outlet cock of the first cylinder and open the outlet cock of the second cylinder, allowing the water from this cylinder to keep up the supply at the bottling table. Open the water inlet-cock of the first cylinder. Start the pump and inject water until the height of the column in the water-gauge glass shows that the cylinder is three-fourths full of water. Always make sure that the water-gauge cocks are open when pumping water, and be careful not to fill the cylinders too full. Proceed with the second and third cylinders, as directed for the first and second, and so continue until the charge in the generator is exhausted and the pressure falls below the required point, which will be indicated by the pressure gauges. When this occurs, agitate the water and gas in all the cylinders to equalize the pressure, and absorb as much as possible of the gas in the generator.