This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Liquors, Wines, And Cordials, Without The Aid Of Distillation", by Pierre Lacour. Also available from Amazon: Manufacture of Liquors, Wines, and Cordials, Without the Aid of Distillation.
Port Wine - Cheap. - Cider or claret, twenty gallons; honey, two gallons; carbonate of soda, twelve ounces; strong tincture grains of paradise, one and a half gallons; powdered catechu, five ounces; color with a strong tincture of logwood and a small portion of burnt sugar. The reader observes that this wine is made without the addition of any spirit, though a small portion would greatly improve it.
The object of the carbonate of soda is to neutralize a portion of acid in the wine or cider, which, if allowed to remain, would present too large a proportion of acid for good port.
Madeira Wine is the strongest of the white wines In general use. It is a slightly acid wine, and when of the proper age and in good condition, has a rich, nutty, aromatic flavor.
Madeira Wine. - Take white wine, ten gallons; honey, ten pints; of equal parts of rum and neutral spirits, ten pints; five ounces of hops, one fourth pound of bitter almonds, mashed; one pint of flour paste; mix and allow it to stand for five days, then fine with a pint of boiled milk.
Madeira Wine - Cheap and good. - Water, twelve gallons; honey, one gallon; clean spirit, five quarts; hops, five ounces; bitter almonds, three ounces. Boil for twenty-five minutes, and allow to ferment by the addition of a quart of yeast; allow the fermentation to continue until the liquor tastes pleasantly acid, then fine with milk, and add three quarts of rum and four ounces of mustard - allow it to stand for a few days - the mustard should be inclosed in a thin piece of muslin and be suspended in the wine. If this wine should need more body, it can be given by the addition of clean spirit, or when it is only to be kept for a short time, the body may be given by the aid of tincture of paradise. Those preferring it, can use for making Madeira, thus : - Sherry, ten parts; port, four parts; raisin spirit or tincture of prunes, one part; and ten drops sulphuric acid for every gallon.
leneriffe is a white wine of a slightly acid taste, and when of a good quality, of a fine aromatic flavor. Its average strength is about the same as that of sherry. It is made from the same grape as Madeira, to which it bears a close resemblance. The imitations of this wine are the same as those of sherry. By the addition of raisin spirit, one tenth; or acetic ether, five ounces, to twenty gallons; or rum, one gallon, to fif teen of the wine.
Claret, Vin de Bordeaux, is a red wine, and from its moderate strength, is ranked as a light wine. It is of a deep purple color, and when good, of a delicate taste, in which the vinous flavor is blended with a slight acidity and astringency.
Imitation Claret. - Boiled cider, five gallons; spirit, two gallons; clear water, five gallons; catechu, powdered, two ounces. Color with red beets and tincture logwood, to suit taste. When this is not sufficiently acid, add from one to two drops of sulphuric acid to the gallon, to suit taste.
Imitation of Red Wine. - Clean, sour, or hard cider, one hundred gallons; warmed and strained honey, ten gallons; sliced red beets, thirty-five pounds. Allow this to ferment by the assistance of a quart of three pints of yeast, from five to eight days, in a warm or sunny position, then draw off into suitable casks for market; then add two gallons of rum, two grains of ambergris, well rubbed up in a table-spoonful of white sugar; and spirit, five to ten gallons, and five ounces powdered catechu. If the color should be too bright, darken it to suit taste with tincture of logwood, and if not sufficiently sharp, add sulphuric acid by small quantities, until the desired taste is produced.
Imitation of Red Wine - Cheap. - Water, one gallon; sulphuric acid, to the strength of weak vinegar; honey, one pint; powdered alum, one half ounce; one sliced red beet, and half pint strong tincture of logwood; one drop oil of wintergreen, dissolved in a wine-glassful of alcohol; and one half of a grain of ambergris, rubbed up in sugar; one pint tincture of grains paradise. Any kind of bright sugar or syrup, will answer in the place of the honey, and in less quantities. This wine, when prepared on a large scale can be made at a very low price, as the honey is the only article that is of value - the tincture of the grains of paradise being substituted for spirit - and any quantity of it can be prepared at the shortest notice, the coloring is kept prepared in barrels for use; when the beets are added, the mixture is allowed to stand for the coloring to become discharged from them for several days.
White Wine Imitations. - Cider, one hundred gallons; warmed and strained honey, seven gallons; clean spirit, five gallons; milk whey, five gallons; hops, eight ounces. Boil, ferment, and fine, with milk. The above milk whey is formed thus: one gallon of sweet milk, and four gallons clear water; stand together for twenty-four hours.
White Wine - Cheap. - Clear soft water, one hundred gallons; honey, eight gallons; yeast, three pints; keep in a warm place in the sun until fermentation causes a pleasant acidity to the taste, then add bruised bitter almonds, five ounces; ground mustard, four ounces; five gallons tincture of grains paradise, four gallons clear spirit, and six ounces horseradish. Allow the mass to stand four days, and then fine with three pints of boiled milk, to be added while hot.
Imitation of White Wine - Cheap. - Clear water, one hundred gallons; sulphuric acid, added to produce the strength of weak vinegar: honey, eight gallons; tincture grains of paradise, five gallons; bruised bitter almonds, five ounces; bruised horseradish.
eight ounces; five ounces of hops. This mixture should stand for thirty-six hours, and about one third of the whole should be passed through a common barrel filter. The first bed should be of a mixture of one half of ground, and the other of whole rice, to the depth of eight inches, and then through a bed of white sand to the depth of eight or ten inches; the sand to be packed with alternate layers of straw, the better to enable the fluid to filter with greater rapidity; this filtered portion is to be added to the whole. This filtering process imparts to the wine a good body and a clear white color. This is the most economical mode in use for improving wines, as the process can be applied to any of the wines. The fluid, in its course through the rice, becomes charged with minute particles of starch, etc, from the rice, which, if attempted by digesting them together, would fail, and in its passage through the sand it is deprived of all the coarse particles that could be detected by the naked eye.
The wine that has been filtered through any starch or gelatinous substances, will soon pass into fermentation, unless it contains a large portion of spirit, say from fifteen to twenty per cent, of pure spirit. Those formulas in this work, prescribing filtration, contain an excess of sulphuric acid, which Will retard fermentation.
The operator will only "make up" this article as it may be wanted.
Sweet Malaga - Imitation. - Cider, ten gallons; inferior raisins, twenty-five pounds; honey, two gallons; clear soft water, twelve gallons; boil briskly for half an hour; strain and barrel; then, raisin spirit, one quart; or high flavored rum, one gallon; clean spirit, two gallons.
Sweet Malaga Wine - Cheap. - Damaged raisins, fifty pounds; water, one hundred gallons; honey, four gallons; of bruised ginger, five ounces; cassia, three ounces; boil for forty minutes, then strain into clean pipes for market; add four gallons tincture grains of paradise, two gallons of rum, and five ounces bruised bitter almonds.
Sparkling Catawba Wine - Imitation. - Raisins, one hundred pounds; sweet cider, thirty-five gallons; water, one hundred gallons; boil, and add three pints of yeast; ferment for twelve days, then add ten gallons of honey, twelve gallons clean spirit, one grain ambergris, rubbed well with two ounces white sugar, and added; and four gallons Jamaica rum, twelve ounces spirit of orris-root, and fine the whole with three quarts of boiled milk, added while hot.
Muscadel Wine - Imitation - Is a mixture of equal quantities Madeira and claret, by the addition of a pint of honey to every three gallons.
Champagne. - Cider, sixty gallons; clean spirit, three gallons; honey, two gallons and a half; boil and ferment; fine with milk.
2. Water, ten gallons; raisins, ten pounds; honey, one gallon; boil, skim, and ferment with yeast for ten days, using one quart of yeast; after it is drawn off in other barrels, five ounces tincture of orris, one gallon of spirit, and five drops each of lemon and orange oil, dissolved in a wineglass of alcohol.