Soups may be classified as follows: Soups with stock, as bouillon, brown stock, white stock, consomme, lamb stock; soups without stock, as cream soups, purees, bisques; and chowders. Only soups with stock will be considered here. Cream soups have white sauce as a basis (page 552). Since the purpose in making soup is to draw out as much food substance and flavoring material as possible, the bones or meat should be placed in cold water and should be heated slowly.

Bones are likely to be better utilized if a receptacle is kept for soup materials only; then every few days the soup kettle may be placed on the stove. If the soup kettle is always kept on the stove and especially if the amount of material is large, as in the case of hotel soup kettles, there is danger of food poisoning because the repeated heating and cooling of the meat and broth furnishes excellent conditions for the growth of certain harmful microorganisms. If sparingly used, fresh pork and ham bones make good additions to soup. If there is a small amount of soup stock on hand, it may be used with the water from boiled potatoes, rice, celery, and the like, to make a delicious soup. Soup stock may be used in white sauce or brown sauce to improve the flavor.

If clear soup is wished, only bones should be used, because meat would have to be strained out and would probably be wasted. Meat that has been used for making soup has lost its flavor but not its nutritive qualities; consequently, if a housekeeper wishes to be thrifty, she will boil the soup meat for a shorter time, or until it is tender, and serve it with the soup.

A soup made in this way with the addition of rice, pearl barley, macaroni, or vegetables makes an appetizing luncheon dish.

Bouillon

4 pounds of meat without bone

4 pints cold water

1 1/2 teaspoons salt

10-12 peppercorns

4 cloves

1 cup canned tomato, if desired

1/4 teaspoon pepper 1/2 teaspoon sweet herbs Bay leaf

1 1/2 tablespoons each of carrot, onion, celery

To make bouillon: (1) Use a kettle with a tight-fitting cover to keep in the flavors; (2) wipe the meat with a damp cloth; (3) trim off undesirable portions; (4) cut in small pieces; (5) place the meat in the kettle; (6) cover it with cold water and allow it to stand 1/2 hour; (7) bring it to the simmering point, 180° F., and cook it for 5 or 6 hours, never allowing the soup to boil; (8) add the vegetables and seasonings 1 hour before serving; (9) strain off the liquid and set it away uncovered to cool.

Brown Soup Stock

6 pounds shin of beef

3 quarts cold water

1/2 teaspoon peppercorns

6 cloves

1/2 bay leaf

3 sprigs thyme

1 sprig marjoram

3 sprigs parsley

Carrots

Turnips 1/2cup of each cut

Onion in dice

Celery

1 tablespoon salt

To make brown soup stock: (1) Wipe the beef; (2) cut the lean meat in cubes; (3) brown one-third of it in a frying pan in marrow from the marrow bones; (4) put the remaining two-thirds with the bone and fat in the soup kettle; (5) let it stand for 30 minutes; (6) add the browned meat, and heat it gradually to the boiling point; (7) remove the scum; (8) cover the kettle and cook the meat slowly for 6 hours; (9) add the vegetables 1 hour before it is done; (10) strain the stock; (11) cool it as quickly as possible; (12) clarify it.

White Soup Stock

4 pounds of knuckle of veal

1 pound lean beef

2 quarts boiling water 6 slices carrot

1 onion

1 large stalk celery

1/2 teaspoon peppercorns 1/2 bay leaf

2 sprigs thyme 2 cloves

Follow the directions for bouillon.

Table XXXI. - Meats for Soup and Broth

Meat

Weight in pounds

Shin soup bones.........................

1-4

Hind shank soup bones...............

1-5

Knuckle soup bone......................

3-7

Oxtail.................................

1-2

Beef neck..............................

1-3

Beef shoulder clod......................

1-2

Beef round...........................

1-2

Shoulder of mutton......................

1-2

Neck of mutton.........................

1-2

Shanks of mutton.......................

1 - 1 1/2