The apparently infinite number of salad dressings may readily be reduced to a few well-recognized types. These types with their best-known modifications are listed below in the order of their simplicity. It is believed that this classification will prove more suggestive than a large number of specific recipes.
Suitable for a green salad.
Suitable for a green salad or for tomatoes.
Suitable for a green salad or for tomatoes.
Lemon juice, sugar, and water.
Suitable for a green salad, for tomatoes, or for fruit. Children are likely to enjoy this dressing.
Strained juice of 1 lemon,
An equal quantity of cold water
1 teaspoon powdered sugar Salt
3 tablespoons oil 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice
1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper Dash of cayenne pepper
Mix the ingredients thoroughly, either by beating them with a fork till well thickened, or by shaking them in a jar or glass-stoppered bottle. If French dressing is made in quantity in a bottle, the amount needed may be poured out, and the remainder may be stored in a cold place for subsequent use. The dressing should be thoroughly shaken before it is used a second time. Special bottles for French dressing are now on the market.
1. Add 1/4 teaspoon of onion juice. 2. Add 1 teaspoon made mustard or 1/4 teaspoon ground mustard. 3. Use 34 teaspoon paprika (Hungarian red pepper) instead of black pepper. 4. Add from 34 to 1/2 teaspoon of powdered sugar. 5. For fruit salads, use lemon juice, orange juice, or grapefruit juice in place of the vinegar, and add 1/4 teaspoon or more of powdered sugar. 6. To make a sharper tasting dressing, use a larger proportion of vinegar and more salt. 7. Use vinegar flavored with tarragon or with chervil. 8. To secure a slight flavor of strong herbs, crush a few of the fresh leaves in a mortar, and soak them in a little oil, which may then be pressed out and added to the dressing. Herbs may be used as follows:
Summer savory or thyme in a green salad to be served with poultry; mint in a salad to be served with lamb or mutton or on a lamb or mutton salad; sweet marjoram or sage in a salad served with geese or ducks; sweet basil in a salad of fish or clams; caraway, balm, or chervil may also be used. 9. Add chopped parsley, chives, capers, or green peppers. 10. Add the finely chopped white of a hard-cooked egg, or the yolk put through a sieve. 11. Add chutney sauce, catchup, or Chile sauce. 12. Add tabasco or Worcestershire sauce. 13. Add cheese, such as grated Cheddar, crumbled Roquefort, or grated Parmesan. 14. Add curry powder.
Two standard recipes for cream dressings are as follows: Sour cream dressing (for cold boiled vegetables and tomatoes)
1 cup thick sour cream (not too old)
2 teaspoons vinegar 1 teaspoon sugar
1 teaspoon salt Dash of cayenne or 1/4 teaspoon
Juice 1/2 lemon paprika
Beat the ingredients together thoroughly. Sweet cream dressing (for vegetable or fruit salads)
1/2 cup heavy cream 1/4 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons vinegar Cayenne pepper or 34 teaspoon paprika
Beat the cream until it is stiff; add the seasonings; add the vinegar slowly, and continue to beat until the ingredients are well blended. For tomato salads and meats, fold in 2 tablespoons of grated horse-radish root.
Suitable for egg salad, fish or meat salad, and for fruit or vegetable salad, although French dressing is often preferred for the last two.
1 cup oil Yolk of 1 egg
2 tablespoons vinegar or lemon juice
Few grains cayenne
2/3 teaspoon powdered sugar, if desired 2/3 teaspoon salt 2/3 teaspoon mustard
If onion flavor is desired, rub a bowl with a freshly cut onion or a clove of garlic. Put in the seasonings, and mix them well. Add the entire amount of acid, then add the egg yolk and beat the mixture well. Add the oil, at first by tablespoons and later in larger quantities, beating the mixture with a Dover egg-beater after each addition. When all the oil has been used, add any further necessary seasonings, and beat the mixture thoroughly. Cover the bowl with an earthen dish, and keep it in a cool place until it is needed.
By adding the acid before the oil, the egg is partially curdled or thickened, and the oil may be added more rapidly than by the older method.
Mayonnaise may be prevented from separating, and the quantity may be increased without materially altering the flavor, by stirring into it, after it is mixed, from 1/3 to 1/2 its bulk of hot cornstarch paste, made in the following way:
2 tablespoons cornstarch 1/3 cup boiling water
1/3 cup vinegar
Add the vinegar to the cornstarch in an enamel saucepan, stirring the mixture until it is smooth. Add the boiling water, bring the mixture to the boiling point, and simmer it gently for 5 minutes. Cool it slightly, and beat the desired quantity into the mayonnaise, which will become thicker and lighter in color. Chill the dressing before using it.
This starch-paste binding is good for modifying the excessive oily flavor, bo which some persons object. It may also be used to conceal the flavor of cottonseed, corn, or peanut oil for persons who have become accustomed to olive oil.
1. The number of raw egg-yolks in the original dressing may be increased, or part of the yolks used may be raw and the other part hard-cooked and pressed through a sieve. When several egg-yolks are used, somewhat less oil will be required, and the dressing will be stiff enough for whipped cream or the stiffly beaten white of egg to be added to it just before it is used. Extra salt and other seasoning should be added as required. When hard-cooked yolks are substituted entirely for raw yolks, the result is called Remoulade sauce. 2. For Potato Mayonnaise use the inside of a small freshly baked potato in place of egg-yolks. Remove it, mash it, and add:
1 teaspoon mustard 1 tablespoon vinegar
1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon powered
Dash of cayenne pepper sugar, if desired
Force the mixture through a fine sieve, and add 1 tablespoon of vinegar and 2/3 cup of oil by tablespoons, as in standard mayonnaise. 3. Use thick, 3lightly soured cream in place of a part of the oil. 4. Use melted butter in place of a part of the oil. 5. For fruit salads, use powdered sugar, omit the mustard and pepper, and use lemon juice in place of vinegar. 6. For White Mayonnaise, use a smaller quantity of egg-yolk; substitute lemon juices - which whitens the dressing - for vinegar. Beat in whipped cream or stiffly beaten egg-whites just before using the dressing. 7. For Green Mayonnaise, add juice pressed from fresh leaves of spinach, parsley, tarragon, or other salad herbs. A combination of two parts of water cress and one part of parsley is particularly good. Break the greens in pieces, pound them in a mortar until they are thoroughly macerated; then squeeze out the juice through cheese-cloth. Artificial vegetable coloring may also be used. 8. For Red Mayonnaise, color the dressing with lobster or pimentos rubbed through a fine sieve, or with cooked beet juice, highly colored fruit juice, or artificial vegetable colorings. 9. For Horse-radish Mayonnaise, to be used with meat and fish salads, add about 3 tablespoons of grated horse-radish, or the same amount of prepared horse-radish. In the latter case, squeeze out the vinegar in which the horse-radish was packed, and use it instead of the plain vinegar in the dressing. 10. For meat, fish, or shell-fish salads, to 1 cup of mayonnaise add 2 tablespoons each of olives and finely chopped pickles. 11. For Mayonnaise Tartare or Sauce Tartare, to be used with, fish and shell-fish salads, fried fish, scallops, and soft-shell crabs, add onion juice or finely chopped onions and finely chopped cucumber pickles, capers, parsley, and olives. 12. To 1 cup of mayonnaise, add 1 1/2 tablespoons of chutney and stir the mixture until it is thoroughly blended.
Boiled dressing (for vegetable and fruit salads, and for salmon salad).
Yolks of 3 eggs
1/3 cup sugar
1 teaspoon mustard
1/4 teaspoon paprika 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup vinegar
Beat the eggs slightly, and add to them the other ingredients in the order given. Cook the mixture in a double boiler, stirring it constantly until it is smooth and thick. This dressing will keep for a long time in a cold place. When ready to use the dressing, mix it with equal parts of whipped cream. A variation pineapple dressing for fruit salads may be made as follows:
6 tablespoons pineapple juice
3 tablespoons sugar
1 1/2 tablespoons butter
4 tablespoons sugar 2 1/2 teaspoons mustard 2 teaspoons salt 1 1/2 tablespoons flour
1 1/2 cups milk
3 tablespoons melted butter
1/2 cup vinegar
2 eggs, slightly beaten
Mix the dry ingredients and blend with them 1/4 cup of milk. Heat the remainder of the milk to the boiling point, add the butter, thicken it with the first mixture, and boil this for 2 minutes. Cool the mixture slightly, add the vinegar gradually, and pour this hot liquid cautiously over the slightly beaten egg, stirring it constantly. Cook the dressing over hot water until it thickens. Cool it immediately in order to prevent curdling, and pour it into a scalded glass jar. This recipe makes more than a pint of rather mild dressing, which will keep for a long time in a cold place.
No whipped cream need be added to the dressing.
For lobster, tuna-fish, or meat salad, omit the sugar and reduce the milk to 1 cup; add 2 extra tablespoons of butter, and a little more vinegar. Thus modified the dressing has somewhat the consistency of real mayonnaise, and is more palatable with meat salads and with lobster and tuna-fish salads than is the sweetened form. For fruit salads, omit the mustard and the butter, and replace the milk with thin cream.
Use the fat left from cooking bacon or smoked ham. Heat it, and strain it through fine cheese-cloth, if there is much sediment. Use two parts of fat to one part of vinegar, thicken it slightly with flour and water well blended, and cook the mixture for a few minutes to remove the raw taste of the flour. This dressing is generally served hot on dandelion, cabbage, and other green salads. It is a good salad dressing for use on camping trips.