The system is "Avoirdupois," sixteen ounces to the pound. Learn to read the scales exactly, and when weighing, always allow for the weight of the utensil or paper holding the food. Weighing is more accurate than measuring, but it is slower, and the measuring can be made sufficiently accurate for most daily work. Weighing is necessary in the cookery of large pieces of meat and with poultry in order to estimate correctly the time for cooking; and it is more convenient to weigh than measure when preserving fruit if the quantities are large. Also in studying food values it is usually necessary to weigh the articles of food.

The measures in common use are the saltspoon, teaspoon, and tablespoon, the half-pint measuring cup, the pint, quart, and gallon of liquid measure. The saltspoon is not accurate, and it is better to use some fraction of a teaspoonful. Teaspoons and tablespoons of a standard volume may be found at some fur-nishing shops. The spoons in common use vary in size, and the only way to approximate accuracy is to use the level spoonful.

This is now the common practice. Tin and glass half-pint cups are made gauged in quarters and thirds. Those commonly on sale sometimes measure more than one fourth of the standard quart. Inquire when you buy if the cup measure is standard, - that is, exactly one half standard pint. A quart measure, with four divisions, is necessary for careful work. A pint measure is convenient, but not necessary if you have the quart and half-pint measuring cup.

It is necessary to know the relation of these different weights and measures to each other. While you may find tables of relative weight and measures in many cookbooks, it is much better for you to work out a few of the most useful for yourself, making careful record in your notebooks.

The following abbreviations are short cuts in reading and writing:.

oz. = ounce lb. = pound ssp. = saltspoonful tsp. = teaspoonful tbsp. = tablespoonful cp. = cup pt. = pint qt. = quart gall. = gallon

If you wish something quicker even than this for notebook work, you can use.

t = teaspoonful T = tablespoonful C = cup

P = pint Q = quart G = gallon