How to Keep the Hair and Scalp Clean-how Often to Shampoo the Hair-the Advantage of Using Rain or Distilled Water-recipes for Liquid Shampoos-shampoo Powders-methods of

Drying The Hair-Dry Shampoo

To keep the hair and scalp clean seems a simple matter, yet there are many points to be taken into consideration in this connection. Speaking generally, it is as injurious to wash the head too often as it is to wash it too seldom. Treatment, however, must be judiciously adapted to individual cases.

When the scalp and hair are of a very greasy nature, ablutions are required more often than in the case of a dry scalp, with dry and brittle hair.

When the skin and hair are in a normal condition, once a month is quite often enough for the head bath.

In the article on the general care of the hair (Part 1, page 26), a warning was given against using strong soaps, soda, or cheap shampoo powders for washing the head, as these things have an irritating effect upon the scalp, and although causing the hair to be soft in texture and fluffy in appearance for three or four days after washing, the strong reaction of the skin produces afterwards excessive grease, and the hair becomes moist and lax, frequently clinging together in sticky strands.

Egg Shampoos

A very good recipe for an egg shampoo was also given in that article. One of the reasons why the yolks of eggs are good for shampooing the hair is that they contain sulphur and ammonia; another reason is that they are also emollient. Hair which has been cleansed with an egg shampoo invariably looks full of lustre and brightness, and is soft and silky to the touch after the drying process is complete; but, in order that these results may appear, thorough rinsing is essential, as, if any of the egg preparation remains in the hair, it will be unpleasantly sticky and greasy afterwards. One of the secrets of successful head-washing, in fact, is that, whatever medium be employed for cleansing purposes, the rinsing in pure clean water afterwards should be carefully carried out.

Another secret which is well worth knowing is that pure rain or distilled water is an ideal hair cleanser. Washing the hair in very hard water is seldom successful. In the country rain-water is easily obtainable, and, if not perfectly clean, can be filtered before using. In towns it is more difficult to get, but automatic domestic stills are now so frequently employed that where one of these is in use a plentiful supply of soft water can always be obtained.

A good domestic still, if placed upon the kitchen-stove while cooking operations are going on, will produce, on an average, about a quart of pure distilled water per hour, and this may be used for both toilet and household purposes.

A Good Liquid Shampoo

A good liquid shampoo, which has a very cleansing effect, is composed of the following ingredients:

Glycerine of borax

2 dr.

Spirit of menthol

2 „

Liquid ammonia

2 „

Extract of roses

6 „

Fld. ext. quillaia

1 1 /4 oz.

Spirit of eucalyptus

1 1/4 „

French rosewater

4 "

Mix, allow to stand for twenty-four hours, then filter. The hair and scalp are first wetted with hot water, some of the shampoo mixture is then well rubbed in, finally the hair is thoroughly rinsed and dried.

Another good liquid shampoo may be made up from this recipe:


3/4 fl. oz.


1 1/4 "

Fld. ext. quillaia

1 1/4 "

Rect. spirit of wine . .

2 1/2 "


4 "

When the hair is very greasy, soap in some form should be used, but strong household soaps should be avoided. The best way to use soap is as an ingredient in a shampoo preparation.

One of the best recipes for a shampoo of this kind is the following:

Transparent or fine curd soap

1 dr.

Saffron .............

1/8 "

Water .. .. .. ..a sufficient

Shave the soap finely and boil it and the saffron in half a pint of water. When the soap is dissolved strain, and add, when cold, the following solution:

Oil of lavender

10 min.

Oil of cloves

3 ..

Otto of rose

4 ..

Oil of bergamot

3 ••

Ess.of musk

1/4 dr.

Rect. spirit

1 gill

Make up the julep to one quart with water. This may be bottled, and about half a break-fastcupful of the mixture used when required. Proceed in the same way as directed for the other shampoos.

Many people prefer a shampoo powder to a liquid shampoo. These are certainly more convenient, especially when travelling, and are equally efficacious, provided simple ingredients are used. Carbonate of potassium (salts of tartar) should never be employed as an ingredient in shampoo powders. It has a drying and often very irritating effect upon the scalp. A very good shampoo powder is composed as follows:

Pulv. quillaia



Pulv. boracis




q.s. to tint

Ol. rosmar

5 min.

Ol. eucalypt.

2 "

Pulv. camphor

5 gr.

This powder should be dissolved in about a quart of hot water, and well rubbed into the scalp, afterwards rinsing thoroughly.

Another shampoo powder which may be used in the same way is made up from the following receipe:

Pulv. quillaia

4 dr.

Pulv. boracis

4 ..

Pulv. camphorae

10 gr.

Ol. rosmarini

3 min.

After washing and drying the head it is sometimes necessary to gently rub into the scalp a little good hair-oil. This will prevent dryness of the scalp, and give a gloss to the hair. The following is a good formula:

Benzoated oil

5 oz.

Violet oil (floral)

1 1/4 ,,

Otto of rose

1 min.

Oil of cinnamon

2 ,,

Oil of cloves

3 ..

Oil of bergamot

4 ..

Mix. There are many methods of drying the hair. One of the best of these is to rub the scalp and hair with warm towels (having previously wrung out as much moisture as possible from the hair with the hands), and then to sit out of doors, on a sunny, warm day, and while constantly lifting the hair with the hands, to allow the sun and air to dry it. Afterwards the hair should be well brushed with a perfectly clean brush, and allowed to hang loose for an hour or two