Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleural membrane, the thin, transparent covering of the lungs and interior of the chest. It is fairly common, especially amongst young people, and ought to be carefully nursed, as it may leave tubercular weakness of the lungs behind it. The disease generally comes on suddenly with a stitch-like pain in the chest. The pain is present on one side only, and is increased on deep breathing. It is due to the inflamed surfaces of the membrane coming together, and thus friction or rubbing is caused.

It is said that a tendency to phthisis or tuberculosis is present in many persons who contract pleurisy. It is caused by chill by a sudden wetting, and gouty or rheumatic people, or those who are tubercular, are more likely to contract it. It sometimes occurs also as a complication in the acute fevers, such as measies or scarlet fever. It is not a serious illness, as a rule, but convalescence may be prolonged, and it is when this occurs that care should be taken to guard against commencing phthisis.

Domestic treatment consists mainly in applying linseed-meal poultices to relieve the pain. After the early stage is over, the chest should be painted with iodine daily. The patient will require light diet during the course of the illness, and in convalescence every effort should be made to build up the constitution. The patient should also be guarded against further chill, and iron tonics will probably be prescribed by the doctor. A mustard plaster applied to the chest makes a useful counter-irritant.

Pneumonia is a disease which every woman should know something about, as careful nursing and care in the early stages are exceedingly-necessary. It occurs at all ages, but is commonest amongst men who are exposed to chill and damp and severe physical work which predispose people to the infection of pneumonia. It also occurs as a complication in the other acute fevers such as typhoid. The disease comes on suddenly with cough, difficulty of breathing, and high temperature. It is an inflammation of the lung tissue, and occurs in two forms.

The first is called lobar pneumonia because it involves the large lobes of the lungs, usually at the base. The other type is called bronchopneumonia, or catarrhal-pneumonia, as the inflammation occurs in little patches scattered unequally through the lungs, and this form is generally associated with bronchitis.

Pneumonia proper runs a 'course of about seven or eight days. At the beginning of the attack the patient suffers severely from headache, backache, and shivering attacks. The temperature rises to 1030 or 1040 and remains for about a week at this point. The patient complains of pain in the side, there is a short cough, and about the third day a rusty coloured spit appears, due to the presence of blood. This is very typical of pneumonia. Later, there may be delirium, and when this occurs there is great danger of heart failure.

In favourable cases the temperature suddenly will fall on the seventh or eighth day, and in the course of a few hours it may be normal. This fall of temperature is associated with sweating, and immediately afterwards the patient improves very rapidly. The pulse and respiration, which have previously been very rapid, return to normal, and the patient gradually recovers. The outlook is graver when both lungs are involved, and it is a more serious illness in old people and children and those who are run down very much in health, whilst alcoholics are generally exceedingly ill, and liable to delirium and heart failure.

In cases of pneumonia a doctor invariably must be in attendance to prescribe the proper drugs and watch the heart, giving stimulants when necessary. A doctor will also have to give medicine to induce sleep. Otherwise the patient gets extremely exhausted. The best domestic remedy consists of frequent poulticing. The room must be thoroughly well ventilated so that the patient is in a constant atmosphere of pure air. Indeed, the tendency nowadays is to nurse a large number of pneumonia patients on an open balcony or roof.

Very few people realise the infectious nature of pneumonia. Compulsory disinfection after- • wards ought to be enforced, as there is plenty of evidence that people sleeping in a bed occupied by a pneumonia patient contract the disease afterwards. Pneumonia is due to a special micro-organism to which one is more liable to succumb when run down, and in a poor state of physical and mental health.

The general treatment of broncho-pneumonia is carried out on the same lines. The illness lasts a much longer time. It often accompanies measles and whooping cough, and the great thing is to guard against the patient becoming consumptive. For this reason the best nursing and medical advice should be provided. Stimulants will be required, but the doctor ought to prescribe the quantity according to the patient's age. Special inhalations of hot medicated steam will be ordered. Adults may also contract broncho-pneumonia, and a certain number of cases in grown-up persons are tubercular. It is important to keep the chest protected with a cotton-wool jacket. The nursing of chest ailments will be considered in the "Home Nursing " section.

Poisoning. (See " Food Poisoning," Vol. 2., page 1114.)

Symptoms of Poisoning. When people are attacked with symptoms of sickness, vomiting, pain in the stomach, collapse, or faintness, poisoning may be the cause. If two or three people are attacked after partaking of a certain meal, the probability is that these have been poisoned by some article of diet which they have eaten together.

In any case of long-continued vomiting without apparent cause, poisoning should be suspected, and sometimes evidence of the poison can be obtained from the vomited matter. This may smell of carbolic or phosphorus, for example; and when an irritant or corrosive poison has been swallowed, the mouth and lips show patches of burnt mucous membrane. •

When the patient is conscious, he should be carefully questioned as to any substance he may have swallowed.

In all cases of suspected poisoning, or violent vomiting, or pain without apparent reason, a doctor should be summoned at once. The first-aid treatment of poisoning accidents will be found on page 872, Vol. 1.

In addition to the remedies enumerated, every effort must be made to keep up the patient's strength, to counteract shock or collapse whilst awaiting the doctor. This can be done by applying heat in the form of hot bottles or bags, hot flannels, and, if necessary, poultices or fomentations over the stomach to relieve pain. After the patient has got rid of some of the poison by vomiting, a cupful of strong boiled tea will act as an antidote to many poisons and stimulate the patient.

Many cases of accidental poisoning could be avoided if people were careful to keep all poisons in the house under lock and key. Chemists invariably supply poisons in dark-coloured bottles, which are ribbed, so that they may be recognised in the dark. But many people are extremely careless in the matter of leaving these about on washstands and tables where they can be reached by children, with serious results.

Accidents may also arise from giving wrong medicines. A lotion intended for external application, for example, is given to the patient to swallow, and more or less serious symptoms of poisoning arise. This might be prevented if people would make a rule of carefully reading the label twice over before pouring out any medicine at all.

The giving of medicines should always be undertaken by a responsible person, and the careless habit of allowing a patient to pour out his own medicine cannot be too strongly condemned.

The mental condition of a sick person is not normal, and he should not have any responsibility of this kind thrust upon him.

Because a case of poisoning may arise at any time, it is a good plan to keep in the medicine cupboard a chart or note on how to act when poisoning accidents occur,