When meat is to be used, it should be weighed, trimmed, and wiped with a cloth wrung out of cold water.
Meat is cooked to develop the extractives, to improve the appearance, to soften the connective tissue, and to destroy germs.
Time for cooking meats will vary with the kind of meat, the cut used, the method of cooking employed, and the condition of the fiber.
Dark meats may be served rare; light meats should always be well done.
Tender cuts of meat taken from the loin, ribs, or round are best cooked by dry heat because of the flavors developed.
Broiling, pan-broiling and roasting are all methods of cooking by dry heat.
When meat is to be cooked by any of these methods it is first seared by exposure to a high heat, then the temperature is slightly lowered and the meat is cooked at this temperature till done. By searing, the albumen on the outside of the meat is hardened forming a crust so that the juices of the meat cannot escape.
The tougher cuts of meat must be cooked by a moist heat for a long time slowlv in order to soften and dissolve the con-nective tissue.
The methods of cooking by moist heat are known as:
Braising or Pot Roasting - a small amount of water is used and the kettle is closely covered so that the steam is all retained.
Boiling - a large quantity of boiling water is used so that the meat is entirely immersed.
Stewing - the meat is cut up and covered with water which is flavored and seasoned and served with the meat.
Soup-making - a large quantity of cold water is put over the meat, which is well cut up, the juices of the meat are extracted, and only the stock is served.
Remove tough outside skin and lean parts from any animal fat and then cut into small pieces. Put fat into a sauce pan, cover with cold water and cook uncovered so that steam may carry off impurities. When water has all evaporated simmer to let fat fry out slowly from membrane. When fat is still and scraps of skin are all shrivelled, strain through a cloth and cool.
Add a few slices of raw potato to fat when it is rather cool and heat it gradually until potato is well-browned. Strain through muslin or a double thickness of cheesecloth placed in a wire strainer. Cool quickly and then cover.
Wipe kettle out with newspaper. Fill nearly full of water and add 1 tablespoon washing soda. Heat until water boils.
Put in all the utensils that have been used in the fat. Then wash them thoroughly.
Remove extra fat from the meat and grease the broiler with some of the fat. Place meat on broiler and broil directly over a clear fire, searing first on each side and then turning every 10 seconds. Cook until well-puffed and brown. Season with salt, pepper and butter, and serve on a hot platter. Time for broiling varies with thickness of the meat. Cook a 1-inch steak 8 to 10 minutes; 1 1/2 -inch steak, 10 to 15 minutes; 2-inch steak, 15 to 20 minutes.
Remove fat from the meat. Heat a frying pan smoking hot without adding any fat. Sear the meat on both sides, decrease heat, then cook more slowly until done, turning every ten seconds. Stand chops on edge to brown. Keep the pan free from excess fat. The time for pan-broiling is the same as for broiling.
Skewer meat in shape, lay it on a rack in a meat pan, season with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and sear in a very hot oven. The oven should be hot enough to color a piece of unglazed white paper to golden brown in one minute. After ten minutes lower the heat of the oven and baste the meat every ten minutes with fat from the pan.
Time for Roasting
Rib Roast, Rare.................10-12 min. per lb.
Rib Roast, Well done..................18-20 min. per lb.
Rolled Roast, Rare...............12-15 min. per lb.
Rolled Roast, Well done..........20-22 min. per lb.
Brown Gravy to serve with Roasted or Broiled Meat
4 tablespoons fat 4 tablespoons flour 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper 1 1/2 cup boiling water or stock
Use fat from the dripping pan in which meat has been roasted or broiled, add flour and seasonings, and stir until browned. Then add boiling liquid slowly and stir until smooth and bubbling.
Season with Worcestershire sauce if desired. Serves 12.
To boil meat place a compact piece of meat in boiling water and allow the water to boil for 10 to 15 minutes, then simmer until tender. All tough meat may be made tender if cooked in this way. Time for cooking meat in water varies with the weight and quality of meat; allow 20 minutes to the pound, and 20 minutes extra for a large piece.
1/2 cup flour 1 teaspoon salt Pepper
1 cup cold water 1 quart boiling stock
Twenty minutes before the boiled meat is to be served, moisten the flour and seasonings for the gravy with cold water and stir until smooth. Add slowly to the boiling liquid in which the meat is cooking, stir vigorously, then cook slowly for the remaining twenty minutes.'