The strained pulp of cooked vegetables, greens, and cereals with an equal portion of thin white sauce is the basis of cream soups.

Thickening. A binding of butter and flour is used to prevent a separation of the thicker and thinner parts of soup; the butter should be heated until it bubbles, the flour and seasoning added, and then sufficient hot liquid to make a smooth sauce; this should be poured into the rest of the hot liquid just before the soup is to be served, and the soup should not be allowed to boil, after the vegetable pulp and milk have been combined, but kept over hot water.

Two tablespoons of flour or half that amount of corn starch to each quart of soup is a good proportion to observe for thickening all vegetable soups that are not of a starchy nature, half that amount will be sufficient for soup prepared from a very starchy vegetable.

Economy. Attractive cream soups can be prepared from left-over vegetables and a combination of flavors may give good results.

Cooking. The acid present in nearly all vegetables is very apt to produce a curdling in the milk if too high a temperature is maintained after they are combined. It is well not to combine the milk and the vegetable until just before serving.

Serving. Cream soups are served for luncheon and supper or with dinner if the other courses are not too rich.

Accompaniments. Crisp crackers, croutons, soup sticks, or bread sticks are served as accompaniments with cream soups and are valuable because they necessitate thorough mastication, hence induce the flow of saliva and aid in the digestion of the starchy ingredients of the soup.

Cream of Tomato Soup

1 quart tomatoes 1/3 cup flour fresh or canned 2 teaspoons salt

1/4 teaspoon soda 1/4 teaspoon white pepper 1/4 or 1/3 cup butter or 1 quart milk (heated) butter substitute

Cover and stew the tomatoes slowly one-half to one hour, rub through a strainer, and while hot add soda; make a tomato

sauce with butter, flour, seasonings, and strained tomatoes, and add hot milk just before serving. Serves 8.

Cream of Celery Soup

2 cups celery

1 quart water

2 cups milk (heated)

3 tablespoons butter

1/4 cup flour

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/8 teaspoon white pepper

Cook the celery in boiling water until very soft, strain. Make a white sauce with butter, flour, seasonings, and milk, and cook until the consistency of thick cream, add celery stock or liquid before serving.

Serve with 1 tablespoon whipped cream on each soup plate if desired. Serves 6.

Potato Soup

3 cups milk or

3 cups milk and water

1 tablespoon chopped onion

4 potatoes

2 tablespoons butter or butter substitute

2 tablespoons flour

1 teaspoon salt

1/8 teaspoon white pepper Celery salt

2 teaspoons parsley

Heat the milk and onion in a double boiler. Cook the potatoes until soft, and drain. Mash potaoes with a wire potato masher, add the hot milk slowly, strain, and using this as liquid make white sauce of remaining ingredients. Cook 5 minutes, and add the chopped parsley just before serving. Serves 6.