Salads may be divided into classes according to the materials of which they are prepared.

Class I - Salads prepared from the green salad plants, used when green and tender, and prepared without cooking. Examples - Lettuce, endive, watercress, celery, nasturtium, dandelion, peppergrass, and mustard.

Class II. - Salads prepared from uncooked vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Examples - Tomato, cucumber, onion, cabbage, radish, sweet pepper, olive, apple, banana, orange, grape fruit, pineapple, pear, cherry, grape, almond, English walnut, pecan, hazel nut.

Class III - Salads prepared from cooked vegetables. Examples - Potato, beet, carrot, asparagus, spinach, peas, beans, cauliflower, artichokes, rice.

Class IV - Salads made from cooked meats, fish, eggs, and cheese, Examples - Chicken, sweetbreads, ham, veal, tongue, salmon, shrimp, lobster, sardine, oyster and crab.

Class V - Salads made from vegetable, meat or fish stock, and prepared in the form of a jelly. Examples - Pressed chicken, aspic jelly, sardines in lemon jelly, tomato, cucumber, and mint.

Salad dressings are made with oil as a foundation or with butter or cream as a foundation.

Oil salad dressings include:

(1) The French Dressing - prepared by combining oil, vinegar, and seasonings until thoroughly blended, used with all the fresh green salad plants, with vegetable and fruit salads, and to marinate the cooked vegetables, meats and fish used for salads.

(2) Mayonnaise Dressing - prepared by combining oil, vinegar, and seasonings with egg-yolks and cream by cooking, used for vegetable, meat, fish, egg, and nut salads.

(3) Cooked Mayonnaise Dressing - prepared by combining oil, vinegar, and seasonings with egg-yolks and cream by cooking, used as a substitute for Mayonnaise.

Cream Salad Dressings are prepared by combining butter or cream with vinegar and seasonings, and sometimes with eggs and milk, usually by cooking. (Mock Mayonnaise).

Preparation of Salad Materials

All green materials used for salads should be fresh, clean, crisp, and cold.

All cooked materials should be carefully picked over, well-chilled, and cut in attractive forms.

Left-over portions of cooked vegetables, meat, fish, and eggs, may be utilized in salads if judiciously combined.

Flavors should be carefully combined.

Garnishes should be attractive and appropriate.

The salad should be combined just before being served, each part being well-chilled before combining.

To Marinate - Cover the salad materials with French Dressing, combine well, and chill for a time before serving so that dressing is absorbed.

Combinations for Salads - Great care must be taken to combine in a salad only flavors which will blend in an agreeable manner.

Delicately flavored materials must not be used with those of strong flavors.

There must be some distinctly pleasing flavor about the salad to render it appetizing.

Some fresh green salad plant should be used in every salad if possible to make it refreshing.

Salad Seasonings - Onion, leeks, chives, celery, celery seed, celery salt, green peppers, pimentoes, cayenne, paprica, peppercorn, Tabasco, catsup, mustard seed, tarragon, olives, horse - radish, cloves, lemons, sugar, salt, etc., are seasonings used for salads.

Salad Garnishes - The garnish for salad should be something edible, attractive, and appropriate as an accompaniment to materials used in salad.

Lettuce, endive, parsley, water-cress, celery leaves, nasturtium leaves and flowers, pickles, olives, pimolas, nuts, lemons, green peppers, capers, beans, beets, radishes, hard cooked eggs, and whipped cream are materials used to garnish salads.

Serving Salads - Salads are served as a course at luncheon, dinner or supper, or as an accompaniment to the fish, meat or game course. When served as a separate course, the salad should follow the meat.

Salads also form an attractive dish for light refreshments.

Only vegetable or fruit salads or salads with French Dressing should be used for dinner salads; those with Mayonnaise or rich cream dressings should be used for luncheons, supper or refreshments.

French Dressing is often prepared and added to the salad by the host or hostess at the table.

Salad Accompaniments - Salads are accompanied by wafers, sandwiches of thin bread and butter (brown, white or graham), rolls, cheese straws and other cheese preparations.

Value of Salads

1 Salads are healthful, adding to the diet fresh, green, uncooked vegetables and a mild acid which is stimulating and adds zest to the appetite.

2 Salads are nutritious, adding oil or fat in an easily digested form to food.

3 Salads are economical, because left-over portions can be combined and used advantageously.

4 Salads are attractive, adding much to the appearance of the table, through coloring and possibilities of arrangement, thus aiding the appetite of those who eat and awakening the interest and developing the artistic skill of the cook.