Broiling (meaning "to burn") is cooking directly over the hot coals. The degree of heat is so intense that the articles to be cooked would be very quickly burned, were they allowed to remain for any length of time over the fire. The secret of nice broiling is frequent turning. The fire should be bright red, and nearly to the top of the fire-box, so that the broiler may almost touch the fire. There should be no flame, as the flame from coal is due to the combustion of tarry vapors, and will cause a deposit of coal tar on the meat, giving it a smoky, nauseating flavor. When the fat from the chop or steak drips on the coals and blazes, it deposits a film of mutton or beef fat all over the meat, which has a very different flavor from that of the coal flame. When the steak has much fat, remove part of it. A little fat will improve the flavor, baste the meat, and keep it from becoming too dry. The oven damper should always be opened while broiling, that the smoke of the dripping fat may be carried into the chimney.

There is nothing better for broiling than a double wire broiler. It is well to have several sizes. Grease it well with a bit of the fat from the meat, or with salt-pork rind. Place the thickest part of whatever is to be broiled next the middle of the broiler. Do not salt the meat, as salt draws out the juice. Have the platter heating, and everything else ready, that you may not leave the broiling for an instant. Hold the broiler firmly, with a coarse towel wrapped around your hand to protect it from the heat. Place it as near the fire as possible, to sear the outside instantly; count ten, then sear the other side. The heat hardens the outside, and starts the flow of the juices. They cannot escape through the hardened outer surface; but if the meat were cooked wholly on one side before turning, they would soon come to the top, and then, in turning the meat, the juices would drip into the fire. But if the meat be turned before the juices reach the top, the other surface is hardened, and they cannot escape, but flow to the centre, and are there retained. As the juices are converted into steam by the heat, they swell and give the meat a puffy appearance. If the broiling be carried on too long, these juices gradually ooze between the fibres to the surface, and are evaporated; and the meat becomes dry, leathery, and indigestible.

Meat should be broiled only long enough to loosen all the fibres, and start the flow of the juices. The meat will spring up instantly when pressed with the knife; and when it ceases to do this, the juices have begun to evaporate, and the meat shrinks. A little experience will enable one to decide just when to remove the meat. Do not cut into it, as this lets out the juices. It should be pink and juicy, not raw and purple, nor brown and dry. Turn over as often as you can count ten, and cook four minutes, if one inch thick; six, if one inch and a half thick. The smaller and thinner the article, the hotter should be the fire; the larger the article, the more temperate the fire, or the greater the distance from the fire.

Fish should be floured to keep the skin from sticking. A large baking-pan to keep in the heat should be laid over the fish if thick, or it may be first partly cooked in the oven.

Chickens, to be thoroughly broiled but not burned or dried, require about twenty minutes. A safe way is to wrap them in buttered glazed paper; cook the inner side first, and after the first searing keep them farther from the fire, or cook them first in the oven.

Chops, bacon, birds, and dry fish are also improved by broiling in the buttered paper. Take a large sheet of white letter paper, or two small sheets. Rub them well with softened butter. This keeps out the air. Season the chop or fish with salt and pepper, place it near the centre of the paper, and fold the edges of the paper over several times and pinch them together close to the meat. The paper will char a long time before blazing, if care be taken not to break through the paper and thus let in the air and let out all the fat. The meat will be basted with its own fat and juices. A longer time will be required for the broiling; but when the paper is well browned, the chop will be done. It will be found juicy and delicious, - free from any smoky flavor.

Pan-broiling is broiling in a hissing hot spider or frying-pan. Heat the pan to a blue heat. Rub it with a bit of the beef fat, just enough to keep the meat from sticking, but do not leave any fat in the pan. Sear the meat quickly on one side, then turn without cutting into the meat, and brown the other side before any juice escapes into the pan. Cook about four minutes, turning twice, and serve very hot with salt and butter. If the pan be hot enough and no fat used, this is not frying, it is broiling on hot iron; and the flavor is almost equal to broiling over the coals.