Roast Chicken

Singe; remove the pin feathers, oil bag, crop, entrails, legs, and tendons. Wipe, stuff, sew, and tie or skewer into shape. Place it on one side, on a rack in a dripping-pan, without water. Dredge, and rub all over with salt, pepper, soft butter, and flour. Put chicken fat or beef drippings over it and in the pan. Roast in a hot oven, with a rack under the pan. When the flour is brown, check the heat, baste with the fat, and afterwards with one third of a cup of butter, melted in one cup of hot water. When brown, turn the other side up; then place it on the back, that the breast may be browned. Baste often, and dredge with flour after basting. Add more water if needed.

Bake a four-pound chicken an hour and a half, or till the joints separate easily. Lay buttered paper over it, if it brown too fast.

Stuffing

Moisten one cup of cracker or soft bread crumbs with one third of a cup of melted butter; season highly with salt, pepper, and thyme.

Chestnut Stuffing

Shell one quart of large chestnuts. Pour on boiling water, and remove the inner brown skin. Boil in salted water or stock till soft. Mash fine. Take half for the stuffing, and mix with it one cup of fine cracker crumbs; season with one teaspoonful of salt, one saltspoon-ful of pepper, and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Moisten with one third of a cup of melted butter. Professional cooks sometimes mix a little apple sauce, flavored with wine, lemon, and sugar, with a chestnut stuffing.

Chestnut Sauce

Remove the fat from the dripping-pan; add nearly a pint of hot water; thicken with flour which has been cooked in brown butter; add salt and pepper, and the remainder of the chestnuts.

Braised Fowl

Prepare the same as for roasting; dredge with salt, pepper, and flour, and brown slightly in hot butter or chicken fat in a frying-pan. Put in a deep pan; half cover with water. Add the giblets, one onion, and one table-spoonful of herbs tied in a bag. Cover with a tightly fitting pan, and bake till tender, basting often. Chop the giblets, thicken, season, and strain the gravy; add the giblets, and pour around the fowl.

Roast Goose

Singe, remove the pin feathers, and before it is cut or drawn, wash and scrub thoroughly in warm soapsuds, to open and cleanse the pores, and render the oil more easy to be extracted. Then draw, as directed on page 253. Wash and rinse the inside in clear water, and wipe dry. Stuff with mashed potatoes highly seasoned with onion, sage, salt, and pepper, or with equal parts of bread crumbs, chopped apples, and boiled onions, seasoned with salt, sage, and pepper. Sew and truss; put on a rack in a pan, and cover the breast with slices of fat salt pork. Place in the oven for three quarters of an hour. The pork fat is quickly drawn out by the heat, flows over the goose, and aids in drawing out the oil. When considerable oil is extracted, take the pan from the oven, and pour off all the oil. Remove the pork, and dredge the goose with flour, and place again in the oven. When the flour is browned, add a little hot water, and baste often. Dredge with flour after basting. Cook until brown and tender. Make a gravy as on page 256. Garnish with watercresses. Serve with apple sauce.