The names of the various pieces, according to the method of dividing the carcass, are as follows: - The hind quarter contains the Sirloin; Rump; Edge-bonr; Buttock, or Round; Mouse Buttock; Veiny Piece; Thick Flank; Thin Flank; Leg Ran; Legs; Fore Rib; Five Ribs. - The fore quarter contains the Middle Rib of four ribs; Chuck of three ribs; Shoulder, or Leg-of-Mutton Piece, containing a part of the Blade-bone; Brisket; Clod; Neck End, or Sticking Piece; Shin; Cheek. Besides these are the Tongue and Palate. The Entrails consist of the Heart; Sweetbreads; Kidneys; Skirts; and three kinds of Tripe, the Double, the Roll, and the Red Tripe.
Ox beef is considered the best. The flesh should feel tender, be fine in the grain, and of a bright red color, nicely marbled or mixed with fat. The fat should be white, rather than of a yellow color.
Heifer beef is excellent when finely fed, and is most suitable for small families. The bone should be taken out of a round of beef before it is salted, and it must be washed, skewered, and bound round firmly before being boiled. Salt beef should be put on with plenty of cold water, and when it boils the scum removed. It is then kept simmering for some hours. A piece weighing fifteen pounds will require three hours and a half to boil. Carrots and turnips for garnishing should be put on to boil with the beef. If in the least tainted, a piece of charcoal may be boiled with it.
When beef is to he kept any length of time, it should be carefully wiped every day. In warn, weatner, wood vinegar is an excellent preservative: it is put all over the meat with a brush. To protect the meat from flies, it may be sprinkled over with pepper. Tainted meat may be restored by washing in cold water, afterwards in strong chamomile tea, after which it may be sprinkled with salt and used the following day, first washing it in cold water. Roughly pounded charcoal rubbed all over the meat also restores it when tainted. In Scotland meat is frequently kept a fortnight smothered in oatmeal, and carefully wiped every day; and if it should be a little tainted, it is soaked some hours before it is used, in oatmeal and water.
These directions equally apply to all sorts of meat. The sirloin is the prime joint for roasting. When to be used, it should be washed, then dried with a clean cloth, and the fat covered over with a piece of white paper tied on with thread. The spit should be kept at all times exceedingly clean: it must be wiped dry immediately after it is drawn from the meat, and washed and scoured every time it is used. Care should be taken to balance the roast properly upon the spit, but, if not exactly right, it is better to make it equal by fastening on a leaden-headed skewer than to pierce it again. The fire should be prepared by putting on plenty of coals at the back. When put down, it should be about 'ten inches from the fire, and gradually drawn nearer. It is first basted with a little butter or fresh dripping, and then well basted with its own fat all the time it roasting. Ten minutes before serving, it should be sprinkled with a little salt, then dredged with flour, and basted till it is frothed. When it is drawn from the spit some gravy will run out, to which may be added a little boiling salt-and-water poured along the bone: the beef is then garnished with plenty of finely scraped horseradish. A sirloin, weighing about fifteen pounds, should be roasted for three hours and a half. A thinner piece of the same weight requires only three hours. In cold weather meat requires longer roasting than in warm, and if newly killed than if it has beer kept.