Bechamel on the contrary requires the addition of milk, the butter and flour being prepared as before, and diluted with half colourless stock, half new milk, its excellence when served alone depending on the careful flavouring of the liquids with which it is diluted, and the use of more or less rich stock and the substitution of cream for milk. Needless to observe that where the cook keeps fas she should do) roux, at hand, a couple of spoonfuls of this, according to the thickness, is diluted with the liquid, in any case allowing the whole to boil-in rapidly till reduced a fourth part, a reduction on which, be it added, the success of the sauce greatly depends.
Brown sauce is simply veloute made with a flour and butter roux, which has been cooked till of a pale coffee brown, and then diluted with more or less strongly flavoured brown stock, and seasoning to taste. Of Course, when used as a groundwork to more elaborate sauces, it is flavoured, and seasoned additionally, but its original taste should be of strong, well made stock, without any predominant flavour beyond that of meat. The fourth sauce on the list, espagnole, derives its name from the Spanish ham and Spanish wine which originally were indispensable parts of its flavour. Many French cooks call any good brown sauce, espagnole nowadays, but this, with all due humility, may be classed as a mistake, for the above is the real origin of the name.
When your cook has really mastered the art of making veloute and bechamel, and has succeeded in differentiating the two, you may easily teach her to vary her condiments ad infinitum. Thus veloute may be used for any sauce which does not need to be absolutely snowy white, as for instance, the allemande mentioned above, which is made as follows: Pour into a delicately clean pan rather more than half a pint of good veloute (made with more or less rich stock, according to the use yon intend making of it), add to this a gill of veal or poultry stock, previously strongly flavoured with mushrooms (it must be impressed on cooks that the stems and trimmings of mushrooms, the trimmings of truffles, and the stalks of parsley are all excellent for flavouring purposes and economise the use of the original article, which is frequently a consideration), and stir this altogether over a sharp fire till reduced, or boiled-in, a fourth part; have ready the yolk of one or more eggs beaten up with two or three table-spoonfuls of cold white stock, a dash of lemon juice, and the very smallest grate of nutmeg, and stir this all into the reduced sauce; when perfectly blended rub it all through a tammy, heat it in the bain-marie, and mix into it just at the last, as you are about to dish it, a morsel of butter; stir this till dissolved, and then pour it all into a previously scalded sauce boat.
Many cooks use allemande as a foundation, but this is to be deprecated on the score of expense. An observation must be made re the tammy. Where there is a kitchenmaid its use should be insisted on, as nothing gives the velvety texture so characteristic of a well made sauce as the tammy; but for household purposes, or where the cook is singlehanded, attention to the initial roux will render unnecessary this troublesome process, or where it is a sine qua non the mistress must provide her cook with a tamis-pressoir (a fine sieve furnished with a rotary dasher, which forces the sauce through the fine meshes of the sieve).
Allemande, with the addition of a little finely minced parsley, and a spoonful or so more of cream at the last, becomes Sauce poulette; or, if minced mushrooms and a suspicion of shallot are added to the parsley, it is known as Sauce Pascaline, a very favourite sauce for hashed lamb; whilst if two tablespoonfuls of d'Uxelles mixture are added for each pint of allemande it becomes sauce d'Uxelles blanche, or sauce aux fines herbes (needless to say where economy has to be considered veloute may be used as the foundation of these sauces, but a spoonful of cream or new milk, and a tiny morsel of butter just at the last are in that case indispensable). Sauce Indienne is simply allemande sauce to which you have stirred one or more ounces of curry butter just at the last, or if preferred an ounce of fresh butter and a spoonful of curry powder; in this case, however, allowing the sauce just to boil up for a minute or two after adding the curry to cook the latter. Sauce Portugaise is made by reducing together a fourth part, a pint of veloute and a gill of white (preferably poultry) stock, and at the last, after sieving it, stirring in the juice of an orange, and the finely peeled and blanched rind cut into Julienne strips.
Sauce Villeroi is a carefully made allemande, reduced till very thick, and further thickened by an egg and cream liaison, and used for masking cutlets, etc., previous to egg and crumbing them.
Bechamel sauce is made by diluting an ounce or two of white roux with rather better than a gill each of white stock, and milk (the latter previously boiled up with a bunch of herbs, one or two green onions, and seasoning to taste). This, when reduced a fourth part, is then finished off with a couple of spoonfuls of thick cream, a dash of lemon juice, and white pepper and salt to taste. Obviously this sauce may be made more or less rich according to the richness of the stock used, the substitution of cream for butter, Ac. But the point to remember is that the milk used in the original mixing of the stock, must have been first boiled up with the flavouring herbs, and seasoning; it is this which constitutes the difference between sauce blanche, which is simply melted butter made with milk instead of water, and bechamel maigre, when no stock is used, but only milk flavoured as above. From bechamel we obtain sauce blanquette, when the milk used has been boiled with a slice of lean smoked ham as well as the herbs, etc., and the whole, when tammied, is mixed with minced parsley, and mushrooms (if liked), a squeeze of lemon juice and a spoonful or so of cream.