This section is from the book "Philadelphia Cook Book: A Manual Of Home Economies", by Sarah Tyson Heston Rorer. Also available from Amazon: Philadelphia Cook Book.
2 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder or a half-teaspoonful of soda and one teaspoonful of cream of tartar
Put the baking-powder, or cream of tartar and soda, and salt, into the flour, and sift it again. Then rub into this the lard. Now see that the oven is very hot (4000 Fahr.). Grease the pans, and get the cutter and rolling-pin. Have everything ready before you put in the milk, then add the milk and knead up quickly, Roll out on the board one inch thick; cut with a small round cuttter , put quickly into the pans and then into the oven. Bake twenty minutes. Remember, to have them a success, handle as little, and make as rapidly, as possible.
Make same as Soda Biscuit, using one pint of rye flour and one pint of wheat flour, instead of one quart of flour.
3 cups of sifted flour 1 teaspoonful of salt 1/4 cup of butter
1 even teaspoonful of baking-powder A scant cup of ice-water
Rub the butter into the flour as quickly and lightly as possible, add the salt and baking-powder, mix well; moisten with the ice-water. Roll out on a board about a half-inch thick, cut with a round cake cutter, put in greased baking-pans, and bake in a quick oven a half-hour.
1 quart of flour
1 scant teaspoonful of soda
1 teaspoonful of salt 1/2 pint of thick sour cream
Add the salt to the flour. Dissolve the soda in two table-spoonfuls of boiling water, add it to the sour cream; then add the cream to the flour, mix quickly, and form into cakes the size of a breakfast plate, and a half-inch thick. Place on a hot griddle. Brown on one side, then turn and brown the other.
If the flour is very heavy, it may require a little more cream to make a soft dough.
1 pint of corn meal 1/2 teaspoonful of salt
Sufficient water to make a batter
Put the corn meal into a bowl, and add the salt; pour over it sufficient boiling water to just moisten the meal, and let stand ten minutes; then add the water until the batter will drop nicely from a spoon. Bake the same as griddle cakes on a hot griddle or hoe. When done, put a bit of butter on the top of each cake, and serve.
The old colored cooks in the South used to make these to perfection, and baked them on their hoes - hence the name - before a wood fire.
2 cups of white meal 1 teaspoonful of salt
1 tablespoonful of lard 1 egg
1 tablespoonful of milk
Mix the salt and meal together dry, put the lard in the centre, and pour over enough boiling water to wet the meal. Beat the egg until very light, add the milk and stir into the meal. Beat the whole well. Drop by tablespoon-fuls on greased pans, and bake in a very hot oven (3800 Fahr.) for fifteen minutes.
1 pint of buttermilk 1 pint of Indian meal 1 teaspoonful of salt
2 tablespoonfuls of melted butter
1 teaspoonful of saleratus or soda
Beat the eggs all together until light, add them to the buttermilk, then add the Indian meal; beat well. Dissolve the saleratus or soda in two tablespoonfuls of boiling water, add this, the butter, and salt to the batter, mix thoroughly, and pour into a greased, shallow baking-pan. Bake in a moderately quick oven for a half-hour.