1. Use other fats in addition to the ones given in the outline.

2. Reduce the proportion of the fats and the oil, and find the amount equivalent to 50 grams of butter, as far as can be determined from breaking the pastries with the fingers.

3. Make a temporary emulsion of the oil and water. Then add quickly to the flour and mix.

4. Spiced pastry. Add 1/2 teaspoon of a spice mixture to the pastry recipe, Experiment 95. It may be any mixture of spices desired or the following: 1/3 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/6 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/4 teaspoon allspice, and 1/4 tea-spoon cloves.

Experiment 98

To determine the best method of preventing juicy fruit soaking the crust in pies.

Make enough pastry at one time for all the tests. It can be made on a KitchenAid or mixed by hand. It is preferable, if possible, to roll all the pastry the same thickness. A large rolling pin may be made or a rod used to roll the pastry the same thickness. The cleats between which the dough is rolled should be placed wide enough apart on the bread board so that when rolled the dough is large enough for the pans used. See directions under Experiment 95. Bake at 220° to 225°C. (425° to 435°F.). The temperature may be lowered if necessary for the last part of the baking. One-half tablespoon of butter for each cup of fruit improves the flavor.

Use an upper and a lower crust in baking the pies. Use a fruit that is juicy. Sweeten the fruit in one large container. Then divide into equal portions for each pie.

1. Use the sweetened juicy fruit for a control.

2. Brush the top of the under crust with melted butter. Then add the sweetened fruit.

3. Brush the top of the under crust with egg white. Add the sweetened fruit.

4. Partially bake the under crust. Then add the fruit and upper crust. Bake.

5. Drain the juice off the fruit and thicken with cornstarch. Use 1 tablespoon of cornstarch for every cup of juice from very sour fruit with thin juice; but use a smaller proportion of cornstarch for fruit juice that is not very tart. Boil the juice and cornstarch. Remove from the fire and add the fruit. Add to the rolled dough while the fruit is still warm. Bake. Is the baking time of the pie shortened when the fruit is added to the dough while warm?

6. Sprinkle the top of the lower crust with flour. Add fruit.

7. Mix the cornstarch or flour with the sugar. Add to the fruit. Use the same proportion of cornstarch as given under 5.

8. Repeat 1, but bake the pie at a much lower temperature than that used for the other pies.

If desired, the series may be repeated using fresh fruit.

Keep portions of each pie until the next day to compare the amount of soaking on standing. The addition of a small amount of butter and salt to the fruit in each pie will improve the flavor.

Appearance

Sogginess of crust

Flavor

At first

On standing