Roast Chicken - Fried Chicken
A. Class Work. Chicken.
1. Weigh a chicken. Compare with weight after it is cleaned and dressed, but not stuffed.
2. Clean and dress a chicken and truss as for roasting. If the head and feet have not been removed, cut them off. Remove pin feathers, using a small knife and being careful not to break the skin. Turn back the skin at the neck so as to cut off the neck close to the body, and pull out the windpipe and the crop. Starting just below the breastbone, make a lengthwise incision just large enough to admit the hand and remove the entrails, gently, so as not to break the gall bladder. Save the gizzard, heart, and liver, but discard the gall bladder. Remove the lungs and the kidneys, saving the latter. With a knife remove the oil bag from the tail. Singe the chicken over a flame, and wash it inside and out. With a knife slit the gizzard all around to the inner lining and pull off the flesh. Trim the heart. The neck and giblets are simmered, and the broth with the meat finely chopped is used in making gravy. To truss fowl:
Draw thighs close to body and hold by inserting a steel skewer under middle joint, running it through the body, coming out under middle joint on other side. Cut piece three-fourths inch wide from neck skin, and with it fasten legs together at ends; or cross drumsticks, tie securely with a long string and fasten to tail. Place the wings close to the body and hold them by inserting a second skewer through the wing, body, and wing on opposite side. Draw the neck skin under back and fasten with a small wooden skewer. Turn bird on its breast. Cross string attached to tail piece and draw it around each end of lower skewer; again cross string and draw around each end of upper skewer; fasten string in a knot and cut off ends. In birds that are not stuffed, legs are often passed through incisions cut in body under bones near tail.
From the "Boston Cooking-School Cook Book." By Fannie M. Farmer.
3. Instead of roasting the chicken, cut it up and prepare as fried chicken.
If the chicken is tender, sprinkle the pieces with flour and salt and saute them in hot fat in a frying pan. When brown, lower the heat, cover, and cook slowly for a few moments. If meat is tough, parboil until tender, then saute, as before, until brown. In this case, the broth is used to make the gravy, and the flour is browned; in the first way, milk is used as the liquid and the flour is not browned. In either case, use the fat in which the chicken has been cooked.
While in its broader sense the term meat includes the flesh of all animals, in its narrow sense it includes only beef, veal, mutton, lamb, and pork. These are sometimes spoken of as "butcher's meat." Poultry is the name given to all domestic birds suitable for food. Pigeon and squab, together with all birds and animals which are hunted, are known as game.
With modern methods of cold storage and incubator hatching, there is no longer much need of considering season in connection with chicken. It is always found in market. Young chickens weighing about a pound and a half are often called broilers. In selecting chicken, it is necessary to know the signs of age. The chicken is known by its smooth feet and skin, and abundance of pin feathers, and the soft cartilage at the end of the breastbone. Long hairs and hard, scaly feet are signs of an older bird. A good turkey is plump with smooth, dark legs, and also shows soft cartilage at the end of the breastbone. Young geese, like young chickens, have an abundance of pin feathers.
The United States Department of Agriculture recommends that poultry be shipped without the removal of the entrails. In order to ship for long distances, poultry, after killing, must be kept in a temperature of about 32° F. While below 30° F. the flesh becomes "frosted", at 35° F. it deteriorates too rapidly for good results. It is customary to thaw frozen poultry before it is sold. This gives opportunity for deterioration to take place, and it would be much better if customers would demand such poultry still frozen.