A. Prepare Chocolate Bread Pudding.
Melt one-fourth of a square of chocolate over hot water, add half a cup of scalded milk, a quarter of a cup of bread crumbs, quarter of an egg beaten, one tablespoon of sugar, a pinch of salt, and a few drops of vanilla. Bake in a buttered dish set in water until firm. Serve with milk or cream.
B. Class Experiments. Care of a Gas Stove.
1. Take a gas stove apart for cleaning.
2. Blacken the stove.
3. Examine a Bunsen burner. Light it, and alternately open and close the holes at the base. Hold a cold saucepan for a moment in the clear flame. When it is again cold hold it in the yellow flame. What effect on the flame has the admission of air to the gas? See whether air is admitted to the burners in a gas stove.
4. When the burners beneath the oven of a gas stove are to be lighted, it is always safer to open the oven door, or, at least, set it ajar. Try the following experiments to see why: a. Pour a scant teaspoon of gasoline (Warning : No light must be in the room while inflammable substances such as this are being poured. Why?) into a dry, wide-mouthed bottle, stir with a hot glass rod for a moment, then hold a lighted stick or long splinter in the mouth of the bottle.
6. Pour the same amount of gasoline into a small shallow dish (the top of a small tin can will do) and light immediately. Explain the difference in action in the two experiments. When might there be danger of an explosion in a gas oven? What difference does opening the door make ?
A flame is burning gas, but the flame may be colorless or yellow. For illuminating purposes a yellow flame is desirable, because the glowing particles of carbon in the flame give off light. But for cooking, a flame as nearly colorless as may be, is best. This is not only because such a flame is hotter, but because the other flame will deposit soot; and unburned soot on the saucepans means wasted fuel as well as extra trouble in washing. Air admitted to the gas furnishes an amount of oxygen sufficient to burn up the soot. When a gas stove is first installed, the plumber making the connection regulates, by means of a small valve in each, the amount of air necessary for each burner. This may need to be changed later if conditions change; but usually any change in the flame, particularly a sudden one, means that the burner has become clogged, perhaps by something spilled over it. In this case, if it does not readily burn clear again, the burner should be detached and boiled out in a weak solution of washing soda.
One of the greatest difficulties experienced may be in the striking back of the flame. By this is meant the catching fire of the gas in the mixer; the gas burns with a roaring sound and gives off a disagreeable odor and the flame is small and yellow. This can be remedied only by turning the gas off completely and, if the burner is hot, giving it time to cool before relighting. The striking back may occur if an attempt is made to light the gas too soon after it is turned on, if the gas is turned too low so that there is not sufficient pressure, or if the flame is blown by a sudden draft. A stove in a bad position between windows and doors may give much trouble in this way, but, usually, the difficulty may be overcome by devising a screen to cut off the draft.
Besides remembering to open the door of the oven before lighting, one must also be careful, when the gas is turned low in the oven, that the flame has not actually gone out, leaving a little gas flowing. A habit should be formed of always looking to see if the gas is still lighted under these circumstances.
The heat of a gas stove is much more easily regulated than is that of a coal stove, and care should be taken not to waste gas by lighting it ahead of time, by leaving it lighted when it is not in use, or by using more flame than is necessary. Water that is just boiling is just as hot as water that is boiling rapidly, and we cannot cook any faster with one than the other.
Gas is a convenient fuel to use, because there are no coals to carry and no ashes to take care of. The products of combustion are supposed to be pushed through the pipe at the back of the stove. Probably, however, this carries off more from the oven than from the upper burners, and a hood over the whole is much more effective, because it carries off the odors of cooking as well.
A stop-cock is frequently put in the pipe connecting the stove with the main gas pipe. As most burners leak a very little, even with the best of care, this is a good practice, making it possible to turn off the gas completely whenever the stove is not to be used for some time. In case of a serious leak, its use is obvious.
Gas is metered, or measured, by the cubic foot. It generally costs from eighty cents to a dollar and a half for a thousand cubic feet of gas. The meter is ordinarily read every month and the reading of the month before subtracted from the present reading, in order to determine how much has been used. In some places there is a minimum charge per month which must be paid even if no gas has been used. In still other places there are slot meters which allow gas to pass after a certain coin, usually a quarter, has been inserted, the gas flowing until the amount paid for has been used. These are used mostly in tenement houses where bills are hard to collect and the frequent sending of a man to turn the gas on and off is expensive.
Reading a gas meter is a simple matter, and in case of disagreement over bills is a useful accomplishment. A gas meter shows three dials; the hand on each dial turning in a direction opposite to the one next it, in order to help obviate mistakes in reading.
Each division of this dial denotes 10,000 feet..
Each division of this dial denotes 1000 feet..
Each division of this dial denotes 100 feet..
How to Read a Gas Meter.1
Read from left-hand dial to right, always taking the figures which the hands have passed. The dials above, for example, register 3, 4, 6, and, adding two ciphers for the hundreds, show 34,600 feet registered. To ascertain the amount of gas used, deduct the previous register as indicated on the above dials by dotted hands, 1, 7, 3, from the present register, 3, 4, 6, as follows:
Register by dials shown above......................
Registered by previous statement, indicated by the dotted hands..........
Number of feet used between readings.........
If you wish to know how much gas is being used, you need only watch the dial at the right hand, each figure of which means 100 feet.
1 By courtesy of the Newton and Watertown Gas Light Co.
The hand on this dial passes from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, to 0, and a complete revolution shows a consumption of 1000 feet, which appears on the dial next to it on the left as 1.
The average burner at the top of a range, when turned on full force, burns about two cubic feet of gas an hour, while the oven burner consumes from thirty to forty cubic feet. From these figures the advantage can readily be seen of using a small portable oven placed over a top burner, instead of the large oven. An oven of this sort, costing from one to two dollars, soon pays for itself, especially in a small family, although the saving is not the full difference between these figures, for the burners in either case are not left on full after the oven is once hot.
The consumer is responsible for leaks which occur in the gas pipes on his side of the meter, and it is for his advantage to have these attended to promptly, not only because of the danger, but because the escaping gas passes through the meter and is registered against him. Leaks on the other side of the meter are, of course, not so registered, and, since they represent loss to the gas company, are attended to by the company.
U. S. Dept. of Commerce. Bureau of Standards, Circular No. 55, sections on Gas and Electricity.
1. Discuss the advantages of a gas over a coal range.
2. What may be the result of letting milk and the like boil over on a gas stove?
3. Should the flame in a gas stove appear yellow?
4. Why should a gas burner in a stove be turned on fully before attempting to light it? Explain.
5. What would you consider wasteful use of gas in a stove?
6. Explain the best methods of extinguishing if the following catch fire: a. clothing b. kerosene or gasoline c. alcohol or wood
7. What is the best treatment for burns or scalds ?
8. Learn to read an electric meter.