This section is from the book "Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery", by Mary E. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery; A Textbook Of Domestic Science For Use In Schools.
The plan of this textbook does not assume the employment of any one particular method of teaching cookery. The book can be used equally well whether the pupils work individually or in groups.
Recipes making quantities suitable for a small family are given, as being the most practicable from all points of view. The individual recipe is not adapted to home use, nor is it so easy to multiply as it is to divide the ordinary recipe to make the latter meet the requirements of individual practice.
The subject-matter in this book can be covered in four terms (two school years) by classes of girls in the sixth and seventh or seventh and eighth years of school, one two-hour lesson being given each week.
The chapter topics are taken up in an order that experience has shown to be a natural and convenient one. The progression has been carefully worked out, as a glance at the table of contents will show. Numerous cross-references, however, which enable the pupil readily to turn to related topics in any part of the book, make it practicable for the teacher to vary this order. Certain portions of the text are printed solid, e.g. Section 5 of Chapter I (Preparatory Lessons. Section 1. Fire And Fuels. A Study Of Combustion), and page 97 together with part of page 98, to indicate that they may, at the discretion of the teacher, be left until later in the course, without interfering with the continuity of the work.
On the other hand, the sections of a chapter are not necessarily to be taken up in the order in which they stand. In many cases, subject-matter from different sections of the same chap ter may properly be presented in one lesson. For example, Sections 2 and 3 of Chapter II (Some Starchy Plants. Section 1. The Potato) would naturally be taken up together.
The subject of cleaning is treated in considerable detail (Chapter I (Preparatory Lessons. Section 1. Fire And Fuels. A Study Of Combustion), Section 3), both because of its importance as a part of a course in household science, and in order to facilitate the keeping of the school kitchen and its equipment in proper condition. Each pupil should be thoroughly familiar with this section, so that when called on to serve as housekeeper she should know how to perform her duties, and where to turn in the textbook to refresh her memory with regard to them.
With the exception of this section on Cleanliness and Cleaning, no part of the book is intended to be studied at home before being taken up in class. Sections 4 and 5 of Chapter I (Preparatory Lessons. Section 1. Fire And Fuels. A Study Of Combustion), both sections of Chapter V (Food In Its Relation To Life. Section 1. Body Stuffs And Food Stuffs), and Chapter XV (Digestion. A General View Of Digestion) are designed to be used chiefly for reference.
Directions for performing experiments and for making tests and "studies" are explicit, in order that each pupil may carry them out individually, - at school, if conditions permit, if not, then at home.
A microscope is a desirable part of the equipment of a school kitchen, but if one is not available, drawings or charts showing the appearance of common foods and foodstuffs under the microscope may answer instead of an exhibition of the specimen itself.
In taking up a new topic, this book, as a rule, gives opportunity for some practice work before presenting any theory. Principles are taught in connection with their application, and the classification of foods and general statements about them are deferred until some practical acquaintance has been gained with typical foods and their chief constituents. It will be observed that the recipes in the section on Food for the Sick (Section 2 of Chapter XI (Food For Babies And The Sick. Section 1. Food For Babies)) are so classified and arranged that this section forms a review of the different classes of foods in the same order in which they are taken up in the preceding chapters.
Although beverages are grouped by themselves, they are treated independently of each other and of other topics, in order that they may be taken up separately whenever convenient. A lesson on tea may be given in connection with the study of water, tea-making thus forming the first practice work of the course. Instruction in the preparation of cocoa and chocolate can be given to better advantage after milk has been studied.
Opportunity is offered, especially by means of the experiments, "studies," and suggestions for reading and home work, for correlation with history, drawing, and the natural sciences. It is desirable that every teacher of household science should make the most of these opportunities, and should secure the cooperation of principal and grade-teachers in correlating, not these branches only, but English and mathematics as well, with the work of the school kitchen.