This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
A tree that is carefully and correctly planted and headed back, will never require a stake. Stakes are troublesome, unsightly, and form good excuses for carelessness in setting the earth about the roots. If the tree moves by winds after planting, immediately re-plant and head in more; better this than a stake, against which the tree is sure by after-neglect to be rubbed and bruised.
The work of plowing orchards should be done with great care, going very shallow in depth with the plow near the trees, and gradually deepening the furrow as you increase distance from them. Trees that were not plowed up to in the fall should have the earth turned toward them at the first plowing in spring, and trees that were well plowed up to in the fall should be harrowed or cultivated first in spring.
In gearing to the plow use a short whif-fle-tree, say sixteen inches, and have the traces brought round from the back side over the ends, so that the whiffle-tree can not bruise should you happen to hit the tree. Some recommend using two horses tandem, but one horse will plow as deep next the trees as should ever be done.
The Belle Magnifique Cherry has one trait to make it desirable over many others, in that it is small and green at the period when Governor Wood, Elton, and others are decaying in abundance on the trees. The tree is quite hardy, and in all grounds it is a desirable variety to plant; especially so is it valuable for sections where the heart (Sherries do not succeed perfectly.
While planting trees, the fruit of which when grown is expected to gratify the palate, do not forget that there is another and higher kind of taste to gratify, through the eye, and also a duty you owe your family, by seeking to make their home attractive. Plant, therefore, of ornamental trees, to furnish shade, flowers, and beauty, and by means of the evergreens, life, cheerfulness, and shelter from cold, driving storms in winter.
If you are planting trees for the purpose of marketing the fruit, select varieties in the greatest proportion of those which ripen the very earliest and the very latest. A pear, peach, apple, or grape, one week in advance of the time when the market is well supplied, affords often from one tree or vine more amount of income than a dozen whose fruit ripens during the season of abundance; and so, also, pears or apples, etc., that keep beyond the regular season of supply, command prices often quadruple in amount.
If you select for your own use in the family, then obtain as great a variety as your grounds will admit, that thereby you may never know a week during the year without some kind of ripe fruit for the table dessert.