In either case, it is the destruction of the natural functions of the tree, producing disease and death. The former is often tardy in its work, but the latter generally rapid and instantaneous. In the one case, it is brought to bear on the tree in a state of rest, when the sap-vessels are contracted, when their juices have been expended to form wood, which is immaturely ripened. In the other case, when the sap-vessels are extended to their utmost capacity, to supply the demands of a rapid and luxuriant growth; when this growth is in its most tender and delicate condition, the scorching mid-day sun does the mischief; the sap, by its rays, is scalded and vitiated, a chemical process of decomposition takes place, its poison is soon carried to and mixed with other portions of the tree, and the whole is often irretrievably lost in a few hours. The only remedy is, the moment that it is discovered on the limb, where this form of blight always makes its appearance, to lop off until you come to the sound and healthy wood, and thus prevent its spreading.

Do not stop to hunt insects, until you have performed this work, when you can do so leisurely.

Sun blight, or fire blight, is always most prevalent in a wet and hot summer. There has been but little the last three years, and we shall certainly have no frozen sap blight to complain of next summer. This is to be attributed to rather unusual dry summers during this period; the wood having ripened well before winter set in, and the growth not so luxurient as in wet seasons.

As a remedy, or rather a preventive to the frozen sap blight, I would suggest the shortening-in application, in September or October, to check the growth, and induce the maturing of the wood. This system is, perhaps, only applicable to dwarfs, as standards cannot well be reached. What is understood by shortening-in, is to cut back the present year's new shoots to the firm wood, say one-third or one-half of it, as the case may require, so that the sap remaining shall be expended in perfecting the wood which is left, and not to be stimulated by the leaves on the ends of the shoots to continue growth. This system is also practiced to force the tree into forming fruit spurs, and thus facilitate the production of fruit Care must be observed in the time of performing this operation. It must not be so early in the season as to cause the bursting of the lateral buds, and thereby cause a more injurious growth than it is the state of the season. It is better a little late, than too early; when the majority of the leaves on the shoot are rigid and hard, is a suitable indication of the proper time.

Having said so much about the want of hardiness of the tree, it may be asked, how I account for the trees that are to be found up and down our land, which have withstood the winter's storms and summer's heat from one to two hundred years! Before I answer the question, allow me to offer them as standing monuments against the exhaustion and insect theories. We have had some specimens in this vicinity - until the spirit of city improvements required their room, when the rude hand of the woodman brought them low - whose existence was co-equal with the first impress of civilization; they remained sound, healthy, and fruitful to the last Such specimens, it will be found, have all originated from seed, and always from a hardier stock than the varieties of more modern introduction. A friend has just given me the history of one in Guilford, Conn., which he says is over two hundred years old, measuring fifteen feet in circumference at five or six feet from the ground. It is now beginning to decay, but yields a considerable quantity of fruit.

He says the fruit does not compare with the best now in cultivation, but when he was a boy, more than fifty years ago, it was considered very superior.

It is to these hardy remains of ancient days, we must look for constitutions to hybridize with our finer sorts, say, 'if you please, the Seckel, which is as hardy as any of them, for a class of trees producing superior fruit, and, at the same time, such as we can trust out of doors.

I fear the above remarks may seem lengthy to some, but the subject is of too much interest to be passed over lightly, or with mere assertions. As it is investigated, the more fully its importance is brought to view. I have endeavored to avoid all improper allusions, unnecessary repetitions, and aim at display; simply confining myself to a plain statement of theories and opinions of others, their comparisons and plausibilities. Much might be added to sustain the views I have presented as the real cause of destruction of our Pear trees.

[The above paper was communicated by Mr. Ernst to the Cincinnati Horticultural Society, and subsequently appeared in the Horticultural Review. Mr. Ernst suggested that we would give place to it in this journal, which we now do with pleasure. It will well repay a careful perusal by every one engaged in the cultivation of the Pear. The disease which is the subject of remark, is a most mysterious one indeed; no less so than some of those fearful epidemics that make such deadly periodical attacks on the human species, and then disappear. The most watchful and skilful cultivators, and those who have had the most ample opportunities for observation, have been unable to do more than suspect or guess at the cause. Mr. Ernst's paper, unfortunately, able and careful as it is, throws no new light on it. From the beginning, many have held strongly to the opinion that "it was chargeable, mainly, to atmospheric influences," and as far as we are aware this is the opinion of a large majority now. Our own opinions are hardly worth giving, and at any rate the length of Mr. Ernst's article prevents us from giving them at this time. - Ed].