This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Dear Sir: July is the month for budding roses, and I wish a little space among the Domestic Items to recommend this practice to rose amateurs. The common mode of budding rare roses on stocks near the ground is so familiar that it needs no mention here. What I would like to recommend to the readers of the Horticulturist is, the practice of budding ever blooming roses on the Prairie flourishing young side shoots, on your Prairie rose, which I will suppose trained to a pole ten feet high, or against a wall. You insert buds of the Bourbon and Noisette roses - or of the Perpetuate; I find the former the best. Next spring you head back the shoots to a point an inch or so above the buds that have taken. The vigor of the prairie stock soon forces these buds of the ever-blooming roses into luxuriant growth, and they will speedily be covered with flowers. By selecting half a dozen of the most striking colors and contrasts, and budding them at different heights on the Prairie climber, you have one of the richest pillars of roses conceivable - blooming more or less all the season.
In pruning the pillar you do not sacrifice the Prairie rose itself - but allow it to bear a considerable number of its own flowers, only keeping down its strongest shoots, so as to throw the necessary amount of nourishment into the budded shoots .
I find the following varieties succeed admirably in this way. Aimee Vibert, (Noisette, pure white; ) Madam Desprez, (Bourbon, deep rose-color, in large clusters;) Malmaison, (Bourbon, delicate blush white;) Mrs. Bousanquet, (China, creamy white;) Bouquet de Flore, (Bourbon, bright crimson.)
When the Prairie mother is a large plant and a strong grower, it is better to top back the shoots to within three or four buds above where the new bud is inserted, at the time of performing the operation. This throws more nourishment into the bud. It should not, however, be topped near the inserted bud, as that would force the latter into immediate growth, which is not desirable. Your Friend, S. Philadelphia, June 15,1851.
Esther, (Lancaster.) Commence budding roses immediately. The Prairie roses will take any of the everblooming sorts - but the hardier kinds of Bourbons, such as Madam Desprez, Gen. Dubourg, Souvenir de Malmaison, fee., are the best. If the plants are growing in a situation exposed to the sun, you will have to tie some shade, in the shape of matting, straw, or branches of evergreens, over the budded portion in winter to prevent injury by the sun. If growing on the north side of a building or fence, it will not be necessary. A Lady. If you wish continual bloom on your monthly rose beds - never allow any suds to grow - cut off the hips as fast as they form, and peg down any long 6hoots that run up. This will force up new shoots, and along with these new flowers. You can hardly make the beds of everblooming roses too rich in this climate, where fully exposed - the more growth, the more bloom - especially if the soil is deep.
In roses, as in many other things, climate has a great influence in modifying our operations. For instance, budding can seldom be performed successfully with us till July, and, in many seasons, may be continued till October. The condition of the stock is a better rule to go by than any given period of time. Budding ought not to be done when the sap is too watery, which may be known by the bark being very thin and delicate, on being raised with the budding-knife. It should be quite hard and firm, at the same time separating readily and easily from the wood. The condition of the scions is also of Importance. Buds taken from shoots in active growth are not so good as those selected from branches that have partially exhausted themselves. To this end, stopping a strong growing shoot a few days before we intend to use it for budding, checks the circulation upwards, and throws more organizable matter into the buds. With us, also, it is not of importance to take out the wood after cutting out our bud; the best operators take as little as possible with the bark. A great cause of failure is in not taking out the bud with a straight, clean cut.
The edges of the bark, after the bud is cut out, must not be split and cracked up as if a jackplane or shingle-shaver had been employed, or failure will be certain. Use a thin bladed knife, and keep its back well away from you, or downwards, while using it.
Among the many methods, for budding roses, I hare found none answer so well as the following, which I hare adopted for some time, and which, I think, should be more generally known. The bad for insertion is taken off the shoot very close to the eye; the tip, or part of the bark below the bad, is cat off quite close, to allow the bad to be pushed closer into the stock without being braised. It then requires only to be tied above the bud, and a composition applied to exclude the air and keep the bud cool, consisting of two-thirds cow-dung and one-third stiff loam. The bud requires no untying, and gradually grows so closely into the stock as hardly to be distinguished from a shoot, and is not so liable to be blown out or injured. The composition is applied in a liquid state with a small brush__Jambs Skirving. Downham.