This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
We received of James Hyde & Son, nurserymen, Newtown Centre, a lot of fine cherries on the first day of August, which from its lateness and superior quality, we think will be a valuable acquisition. It originated in that neighborhood. The fruit is medial size; obtuse heart shaped; dark, red and mottled, light amber in the shade; stem rather short and slim; flesh soft, tender, very juicy, sweet, rich, and delicious; stone small; ripe the first day of August.- N. E. Farmer.
cultivated portions of Europe prevail, the civilization is at so low an ebb in this respect, that hogs and cows have free range of the streets - that droves of fat cattle and sheep are driven through the streets at mid-day, and hardly a month passes by that the newspapers do not record accidents to women and children - gored or trampled upon in the very park in front of the city-hall itself. All over the country the condition of things is little or no better. In Washington, droves of cows and hogs, by hundreds, ramble at will over the open unimproved grounds about the city - in almost every town the traveler stumbles over swine at every corner of the street; in almost every country neighborhood, the owners of gardens and orchards tremble daily for the sanctity of their premises, and guard jealously the gates, lest the domestic animals that are nobody's property in particular, but live by robbing the community in general, should make an onslaught upon our light wooden fences, and sweep garden and orchard before them.
The extra cost of fencing against these commoners, amounts to at least hundreds of millions of dollars to the country at large - as any one who has traveled through France,where no animals run at large,and there are miles without fences,will understand. Every man who owns a few acres of land, spends hundreds of dollars in shutting out animals that are not his own, and have no right to be at large to his annoyance and cost; and thus the country is both disgraced and over-taxed by a miserable shortsightedness upon the part of the more intelligent members of the community, who will not boldly enforce the law and protect their own interests.
We have called this feature a mark of a low condition of civilization, and every thinking person who will give it a few moment's, reflection, will, we think, agree with us.
In Ireland, the poor cottagers think it no degradation to humanity to share the best and only room of their cabins, with their pigs. In Switzerland, even wealthy farmers lodge their cattle in the basement story of their houses, and a neatly rounded manure-heap is one of the scenic features that meets the eye from every front-door.
Will any American attempt to argue that this condition of things in Ireland and Switzerland, is not the index of a lower state of civilization than our own? Bul will not any person, either from England, France, or even Massachusetts, also feel equally shocked at the brutal aspect of the streets in most parts of the United States, and put it down as an almost equally decided mark of low civilization?
It seems to us that as there can be no question on this subject, and as no right-thinking man can wish to live among cattle or share the streets and avenues with them, it is time that something should be done to arouse public attention to the barbarism we speak of. It may be thought a little matter by many persons, but so are personal cleanliness, the health of cities, the introduction of pure water in towns, and even common schools - all "little matters" if the public sentiment and public intelligence are at so low an ebb as not to see and feel their value. But in fact everything which tends to make mankind respect themselves, tends to raise them in the scale of humanity. Certainly the more we live like men, the more we fulfil this condition, and it is no help to such a hopeful condition to pass great part of our time in the streets of towns and cities when animals and men make common enjoyment of them.
There are two classes of citizens who stand in the way of wholesome reform in the matter we speak of. One, and the largest, is an ignorant and indifferent class - who see nothing uncomfortable in this state of things, and need therefore to be roused and shamed into action by an expression of right feeling on the part of those who see cleanliness and decorum in their true light; the second consists of demagogues who fear to disturb the prejudices of that small class in the community, which understand by the word liberty, not a wholesome obedience of just laws made by the people - but a certain license to do anything and everything not absolutely criminal, with their own property, and that of all their neighbors.
That it is only needful for a few good citizens in every town to look at the matter clearly, and determine to have orderly and sanitary laws like these enforced, we have had abundant proof in the town where we live - which is, so far as we know, the only one in the State of New York where animals are not joint-stock possessors of all the streets and highways. Eight or ten years ago, Newburgh, which has a population of nine thousand inhabitants, was one of. the lea9t cleanly and orderly towns in the North. Droves of hogs, cows and geese ran at large everywhere, and the possessor of a garden or even of a bit of sidewalk was always liable, night and day, to the nuisance and annoyance of numbers of these commoners. At length it was determined by a few of the more orderly inhabitants, to endeavor to have enforced the law for pounding animals. The trustees of the village doubted the possibility of enforcing the law, and faltered in their duty. At the next election, however, the hog-law was made the test, trustees favorable to its execution were elected by a large majority, notwithstanding a fierce opposition. When the law was enforced, so strong was the feeling of resistance, that the public pound was several times broken into at night, and the animals released.
But the orderly part of the community stood firmly by the authorities, and the latter did their duty, until the law triumphed. After much grumbling on the part of many who imagined that they had a clear right to prey upon the public in this manner,a general acquiescence came about. And now for five years we have had cleanly streets, free from all animals of all kinds, and such an air of neatness and rural beauty has sprung up, that the place has almost changed its character. The carriage-gates of grounds, like our own, which, under the old system of things, needed almost an armed huntsman to keep out the brute population, are now wide open day and evening, without the least plant suffering depredation; and what is the best part of the story, so completely has the feeling of better civilization triumphed, that it would, we imagine, be very hard at the present moment, to persuade the population of this town to return to the old condition of streets, overrun with unclean beasts.
In order that the reform may spread, right-thinking persons must both protest and take up arms against the nuisance - and we hereby enter the lists with all our hearts, and call on our fellow citizens throughout the country to shake off this remnant of low civilisation.