Very few of oar summer fruits are hardy, well-shaped trees, though nearly all are good bearers. Madeleine comes first in eating. In Europe, as far north as the 55th degree of lat, it ripens always at the end of June or beginning of July; here it does not ripen before the 15th or 20th of July under the most favorable conditions. It is nearly always a juicy, sweet fruit, lacking spice and aroma, but uniform in quality; like all old varieties, it is disposed to crack, and must be picked six or eight days before it shows any signs of ripening. The tree is a good bearer but of drooping habit, and hardy enough in some localities.

Next in season, but first in quality, comes the Beurre Giffard, in our opinion the best of our summer varieties. The tree is almost unmanageable. Its straggling habits do not admit of a pyramidal shape, unless by close and constant watching and pruning. Once in a tolerably erect shape it is easy enough to keep it under control. It is a good and constant bearer. Its fruit is undoubtedly the most valuable if not the very best among the early varieties. Although it is advisable to pick early, five or eight days before maturity, it ripens well on the tree; but at the least change of color it ought to be picked immediately.

About two weeks later the Rostiezer comes to maturity; another straggling, unsightly tree, unless well pruned when young. It is a good bearer and one of the best fruits of the catalogue. Its only objection is its small size. Our engraving represents a middle sized fruit; under good cultivation, with a moderate crop, it is often larger.

Manning's Elizabeth is a most delicious, juicy, small fruit; it is constantly good; rather best; we never found an inferior fruit among a large crop. The tree is more steady in its habits and grows handsomely. It was originated by Mr. Robert Manning, the old correspondent of Van Mons, and I believe came from one of the inedited numbers sent to Messrs. Dearborn and Manning in the early part of this century.

Bloodgood and Dearborn's seedling are too well known to require a description; they are general favorites in our markets. The Dearborn was named Danes by Van Mons, at least we must presume it, as the grafts were sent to him, and as the Dones proves to be identical with the Dearborn in all its characters. Perhaps the name was lost when Van Mons received the grafts, or else we could not well account for such liberties taken by a man who, at that time, was in possession of the richest collection of seedlings in Europe.

Beurre Haggerston ripens at the same time;• it is a brisk, vinous, juicy pear, a favorite with many who like subacid better than sweetness and high flavor. It is also called Litnon, and came from grafts sent by Van Mons to Messrs. Dearborn and Robert Manning. The name was lost, as was often the case in those days of slow navigation. The original (found out afterwards) was Van Mons.

No. 8, or Bergamotte Louis. It is a good bearer, but succeeds better on the pear stock than on the quince.

Nearly all the summer varieties are early productive on the pear stock, and can be brought into fruiting much easier than our later varieties.

Next to those we shall point out the Tyson, the Ott's seedling, the Doyenne de Juillet or Doyennd d'Ete, the Beurre Goubault, and the Kirtland's Beurre, as among the very best of our summer varieties.

* See Frontispices..