Sodding instead of seeding has the following advantages: (1) grass of a known texture can be obtained; (2) an immediate stand of grass is secured; (3) sod can be laid at any season except when the ground is frozen. The disadvantages, however, are quite numerous: (1) a seeded lawn is as good and generally is better within a year; (2) the expense of sodding a lawn is great; (3) it is usually difficult to procure good sod; (4) sod will heave on heavy soils if laid too late in the fall; (5) it is difficult to get perfect unions between sods. Sod is generally used along the edges of walks, borders, banks, and close to buildings, when seeding an area; and also on areas such as terraces and laundry yards which are to be used immediately. The preparation of a lawn for sodding is the same as for seeding. Sod should be laid on a firm foundation; that is, the soil should be thoroughly tamped before any sod is placed upon it. The best sod is secured from pastures which are on a heavy type of soil. Pasture turf is cropped and therefore forms a dense growth which can be removed in thin layers. Cut the sod about one and one-half inches thick, twelve inches wide, and three feet long. A foot-wide board should be laid on the turf and the strips cut along either side with an edger. The sod is lifted with a spade or preferably with a turfing iron. The strips are rolled up, grass side in, and should be relaid as soon as possible. When laying sod, fill the junctions with fine soil and then beat it down with the back of a spade or with a sod pounder, remembering that it cannot be pounded too hard. After being laid, sod must be cared for carefully throughout the summer.