For severe contusions in consequence of a blow received on any of the soft parts of the body, apply at once fomentations as hot as can be borne. The hemorrhage beneath the skin which frequently occurs in consequence of a severe bruise, may generally be prevented by firm compression immediately after the injury. It is a custom among German mothers when a child falls, striking its head severely, to apply the convex surface of the bowl of a teaspoon immediately upon picking it up. The compression can be kept up by means of a pad and bandage as long as desired.

Much of the discoloration which results from bruises, which is particularly undesirable when the eye is the part injured, may be prevented by the continuous application of hot fomentations for some time after the accident. The sooner the hot applications can be made, the better. The object of this treatment is to cause contraction of the blood-vessels and thus diminish the amount of hemorrhage. Cold is very efficient for the same purpose, but it should not be applied for more than half an hour without removal for a few minutes, as the blood vessels become paralyzed. Alternate hot and cold applications are better than either hot or cold alone. An additional advantage in the use of hot applications is the removal of the soreness of the parts. Hot fomentations are also one of the best means for relieving the pain which accompanies fractures of bones occasioned by a blow or fall.

Lotions of various kinds are recommended for the prevention of discoloration. Probably water alone, equal parts of alcohol and water, or a lotion of common salt and vinegar, are as efficient as any that can be employed. A favorite remedy with some, for bruises and contusions, is tincture of bryonia We do not think, however, that any of these remedies are better than hot water faithfully applied. When there is a marked tendency to inflammation, as indicated by heat, redness, swelling, and much pain, cold applications should be vigorously applied. When suppuration has taken place, poultices should be employed. If the patient has high fever and chills, the abscess should be lanced.

Arnica is a popular remedy for bruises, but its use is of doubtful propriety, as it frequently produces local symptoms of poisoning, and often gives rise to disease of the skin of parts to which it is applied. When a person has been much jarred, as by a considerable fall, or more or less bruised all over, a hot full bath, or a hot blanket pack will give more relief than any other remedy. This measure should not be employed, however, when the patient is faint.

In case a person has been bruised about the trunk, or body, by having a tree fall upon him or being run over by a wagon wheel, the services of a skillful surgeon should be obtained as soon as possible. Hot fomentations or a hot full bath may be employed in the meantime.

Bruises upon the head in consequence of severe blows or a fall, often give rise to serious symptoms on account of fracture of the skull and compression of the brain, or from simple concussion, or jarring, of the brain. If a person is insensible or partially paralyzed in consequence of an accident in which the head is injured, surgical advice should be secured at once. As a general rule, continuous cold is the best application for injuries resulting from severe blows upon the head. Fomentations may be applied at intervals to relieve soreness, but the application should be not longer than five or ten minutes at a time.

Injuries to the joints require perfect rest and the application of cold to the injured part, until danger of inflammation is past, when the joint should be carefully moved daily to prevent its becoming stiff