The oesophagus is subject to all the forms of inflammation which affect the mouth and larynx, though less liable to be thus affected. Inflammation of the oesophagus is most often excited by swallowing hot food and caustic or irritating substances, or by injury from a fish-bone or some angular body accidentally swallowed. Ulcers of the oesophagus may be produced by injuries from foreign bodies introduced by accident, or by the injudicious use of the stomach-tube. When inflammation or ulceration of the oesophagus exists in the lower part of this organ, it may be overlooked, as the sensibility of this part is not very great. Pain is usually felt between the shoulders.

The treatment of inflammation of the oesophagus is as nearly as possible the same as that suggested for inflammation of the mouth, the application of cold and the swallowing of small bits of ice being the most effective of such measures. Little can be done for ulceration of the oesophagus except to improve the patient's general health in every way possible, and cause him to abstain from the use of other than bland and unirritating articles of food.

Paralysis of the Oesophagus

Is an affection which usually exists in connection with general paralysis, being very rarely a primary affection. When incomplete, the patient can swallow with difficulty, liquid food being taken better than solid. In cases of complete paralysis, swallowing becomes impossible. The use of electricity is the only remedy which promises a favorable result As in most other affections of the oesophagus which interfere with nutrition, life may be maintained by the use of nutritive enemata.