This section is from the book "Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. Also available from Amazon: Dental Medicine.
Of hydrate of chloral, gr. v to gr. xx; and it must be remembered that one-half drachm has produced poisonous symptoms. Thirty grains of hydrate of chloral are equal in effect to gr. j of opium. For adults, if short intervals of sleep are required, from gr. xx to xxx will answer; for young children, gr. vij is the dose recommended. Moderate and frequently repeated doses are better than a single large one.
In dental practice, the hydrate of chloral, in the form of gr. ss to gr. j, is applied to inflamed pulps for the relief of odontalgia, and is an efficient remedy; it is also employed for the relief of neuralgia of the fifth pair of nerves; as a stimulant and deodorizing application to foul and fetid indolent ulcers; also as a local anaesthetic, for this purpose being combined with camphor and other agents (see Aconite), (see Camphor); also as an anodyne, for the relief of the pain of periodontitis; and as an injection, for alveolar abscesses. It is also used as a lotion (when diluted with water) for inflammations of the oral mucous membrane, and as an antiseptic (chloral, aqua, for injecting putrid pulp-canals and chronic alveolar abscesses. Although it is employed hypodermically, yet painful phlegmons have resulted from its repeated application.
When chloral is combined with carbolic acid it liquefies, and a preparation composed of equal parts of phenol and chloral is used for odontalgia as well as for its antiseptic qualities. Chloral Phenol is a colorless, clear liquid, soluble in alcohol, acetic acid, amyl-alcohol, chloroform, carbon, glycerin and ether. It possesses the odor and taste of its constituents.
Chloral has the property, when rubbed with certain bodies, such as camphor, of forming there with syrupy liquids. With phenol (absolute carbolic acid) it also liquefies, and a preparation composed of equal parts of phenol and chloral is used in dentistry for allaying toothache, as well as for its antiseptic properties. A recent study by Fabini, says the Chemist and Druggist, shows that chloral-phenol possesses the odor and taste of its constituents, and when applied to the skin produces inflammation and an eruption of small blisters. It is a colorless and clear liquid, having a sp. gr, at 20° C. of 1.289, so that it sinks in anhydrous glycerin.
It is soluble in alcohol, acetic acid, amyl-alcohol, chloroform, carbon bisulphide, and glycerin, as well as in ether when slightly warmed. It is only partially soluble in petroleum ether, and benzine only dissolves a little of the fluid, and what is dissolved is chloral-phenol. Fabini tested the fluid thoroughly, with a view to determining whether it is a mechanical mixture, and it behaved in every way toward re-agents as carbolic acid does, while with sulphuric acid some of the chloral-phenol yielded, after twenty-four hours, a velvet-colored plaster-like mass, which consisted of meta-chloral and phenol-sulphonic acid. There seems to be no doubt, therefore, that chloral-phenol is a mixture.
This preparation should not be confounded with the phenol camphor devised by Cockrane (not campho-phenique), and made by mixing together I part of carbolic acid and 3 parts of camphor. After twenty-four hours this becomes a liquid, having a sp. gr. of 990. It is used with oil as an antiseptic. As a spray it may be applied to the skin to produce local anaesthesia. It may be employed for disinfecting surgical instruments, and upon wool and gauze for wound dressing. It is soluble in alcohol, ether and oils, but not in water or glycerin. Menthol, cocaine, salicylic acid, iodoform, chloral hydrate, and mercuric chloride are soluble in phenol camphor.
For Foul and Fetid Indolent Ulcers.
Chloral hydratis . . gr.x Aquae destillatae . . . Signa. - To be applied as a lotion.
For a Local Anaesthetic. Chloral hydratis . . . Pulveris camphorse . Signa. - To be applied as an obtund-ing mixture, by means of an applicator.
For Odontalgia - Pulpitis. Flagg. Chloral hydratis . . .
Apply on cotton.
For Foul and Fetid Indolent Ulcers.
Chloral hydratis . . . Adipis.......
To be used as an ointment.
Camphorae (gum) . . equal parts. Rub well in a mortar to liquefaction and add gtt. v of carbolic acid.
For a Hypnotic. Chloral hydratis . . Syrupi aurantii flores . Syrupi tolutani . . . Aquce destillatae . . Signa. - Dose \ part, largely diluted.
Chloral hydratis . . . partes 3 Camphorae .... partem 1. M. Signa. - To be applied over seat of pain.
For a Local Anaesthetic.
Chloral hydratis, Pulveris camphorae . Morphinae sulph. . . Chloriformi .... Signa. - Apply with camel's-hair brush; dry rapidly, and reapply.
For Neuralgia and Exposed Pulps.
Chloral hydratis ... 2 parts Camphorae .... 5 parts Cocaini hydrochloratis 1 part. M. Heat to about boiling point of water till liquefied.
Chloral hydratis . . . Ess. Menthae ....
Morphin. chlor. hydrat. gr.ix. M. Signa. - Apply a small quantity upon a pledget of cotton.
Chloral hydratis . . . gr.xx
Mur. cocaine ... gr.vj
To Alleviate the Pain of Tooth Extraction.
Chloroformi .... Signa. - Apply carefully with a camel's-hair brush over root of tooth to be extracted, and allow it to remain 1 or 2 minutes before operating.