This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Li = 7.01.
Lithii Carbonas. Lithium Carbonate. Li2Co3 = 73.87. Source. - By action of Lithium Chloride upon Ammonium Carbonate, filtration, washing with Alcohol, and drying. 2LiC1 + Nh3hco3= Li2Co3 + Nh4c1 + Hc1.
A light, white powder, odorless, and having an alkaline taste; permanent in the air. Solubility. - In 80 parts of water; insoluble in Alcohol.
Dose, 2 to 10 gr.; .12 to .60 gm.
Lithii Citras. Lithium Citrate. Li3C6H5O7 = 209.57.
A white powder, odorless and having a cooling, faintly alkaline taste; deliquescent on exposure to air. Solubility. - In 2 parts of water; almost insoluble in Alcohol or Ether.
Dose, 5 to 20 gr.; .30 to 1.20 gm.
Effervescent Lithium Citrate.
Lithium Carbonate, 70; Sodium Bicarbonate, 280; Citric Acid, 370; Sugar, a sufficient quantity, to 1000. Triturate the Citric Acid with Sugar, and dry the mixture thoroughly. Then incorporate with it, by trituration, Lithium Carbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate, and enough Sugar to make the product weigh 1000 parts.
A white powder having a cooling, saline and sweetish taste. Solubility. - Completely in water with effervescence.
Dose, 10 to 45 gr.; .60 to 3.00 gm.
These lithium salts closely resemble in their actions the corresponding potassium salts, in large doses leading to muscular and cardiac depression with gastro-intestinal irritation; but, as lithium has a strong affinity for uric acid, and lithium biurate is very soluble, they are more powerful solvents of uric acid. They are also efficacious as diuretics and render the urine very alkaline.
Lithium salts are much used internally in acute and chronic gout, to promote the elimination of sodium biurate. They are also given as solvents to patients suffering from uric acid gravel and calculus. Those suffering from gravel are said often to derive great benefit. A lotion of the carbonate (1 to 120 of water) applied on lint and covered with gutta-percha relieves the pain of gouty inflammation, promotes the healing of gouty ulcers, and aids the disappearance of tophi although it does seem to prevent their formation. Lithium salts should always be freely diluted. The citrate has the advantage of greater solubility. Although there is no doubt that the salt of lithium and uric acid is very soluble in water, much doubt has recently been cast upon the efficacy of lithium salts administered for gout, because the addition of a lithium salt to blood serum does not enhance its solvent power on sodium biurate.
3. Lithii Benzoas, see Acidum Benzoicum.
4. Lithii Bromidum, see Bromine.
5. Lithii Salicylas, see Acidum Salicylicum.