The fruit of Capsicum frutescens, the African pepper. The active principle is a very acrid oleoresin which is powerfully irritant, being capable of destroying the skin if applied to it. Capsicum is a stimulant stomachic, giving, in moderate doses, a pleasant feeling of warmth. In overdose it may cause severe pain and inflammation, with vomiting and purging. It is useful as a corrective in flatulence and slight diarrhoea.
Strength, 10%. Average dose, viii.-0.5 mil.
The leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, a native of tropical countries cultivated in the North.
They contain an exceedingly powerful alkaloid, nicotine; a volatile oil, nicotiana; and, in slight proportions, the following alkaloids, some of which are familiar as being found in other plants: lupuline, coniine, lobeline, piperidine, muscarine, and sparteine; also the alkaloidal compound trimethyamine.
Tobacco smoke contains but little nicotine, if any, and a large proportion of pyridine.
Death has followed a toxic dose in three minutes. Emetics, tannin, and artificial respiration are to be employed in treating the poisoning. Tobacco is no longer used in medicine, being seriously depressing in its effects.