Diaphoretics, - increase the secretion of sweat. Indirectly they aid the kidneys and reduce temperature. Pilocarpine. Dover's Powder. Acetanilide.

Also salicylates, nitrous ether, antimony, eupatorium, potassium, ammonium, camphor, alcohol, heat, antipy-rine, asaprol, and other synthetics.

Anhidrotics, - diminish secretion of sweat.

Atropine. Hyoscyamus. Picrotoxin. Cold.


Many drugs when applied to the skin produce vascular excitement or irritation; called counter-irritants if applied to excite reflex influence at a remote point.

(1) Rubefacients, - cause redness of the skin. Mustard. Heat. Turpentine.

Also ammonia, capsicum, camphor, veratrine, iodine, arnica, friction.

(2) Vesicants or Epispastics, - produce blisters, or collections of serum beneath the epidermis.

Cantharides. Mustard.

(3) Pustulants, - produce pustules, or small collections of white blood corpuscles.

Croton Oil. Tartar Emetic.

Caustics or Escharotics, - destroy the vitality of the tissues, producing a slough.

Nitrate of Silver. Caustic Potash. Sulphuric Acid.

Also zinc chloride, mercury, copper, chloride of antimony, bromine, lime, caustic soda; acids - carbolic nitric, acetic (glacial).

Astringents, - produce contraction of vessels and tissue and lessen secretion from mucous membrane. Known as remote or local astringents according as they act on internal organs or affect the part to which they are applied. As they chiefly affect the vessels they may also be considered in relation to the circulation.

Tannic Acid. Alum. Iron.

Also gallic acid; substances containing tannic acid, as galls, hamamelis, catechu, etc.; acetic acid; salts of- lead, silver, zinc, copper, bismuth.

Antiphlogistics, - agents reducing or subduing inflammation or fever (Gould). They include all medicines and means to this end.

Styptics or Hoemostatics, - arrest haemorrhage. Adrenalin. All Astringents. Cold.

Also ergot, strychnine, digitalis, actual cautery, heat.

Emollients and Demulcents, - soften and protect skin or mucous membranes.

Vaseline. Cacao Butter. Borax.

Also olive oil, lanolin, lard, glycerin, starch, lycopo-dium, licorice, white of egg, barley water, rice water, flax seed, tragacanth, acacia, and other mucilaginous substances.

Protectives, - used to cover a part.

Collodion. Guttapercha, etc.