Sulphonal is an alcohol derivative, belonging to what are chemically known as the sulphur compounds of alcohol. It has hypnotic action. It is a white, odor less, and tasteless powder, almost insoluble in water, requiring from 100 to 150 parts of cold, and 18 or 20 of boiling, water to dissolve it.

In favorable instances it produces a physiological sleep, which lasts for several hours, with no unpleasant after-effects. With susceptible cases sleep has been known to come on in an hour or little over, but as a usual thing sulphonal is rather slow in action, sometimes not taking effect for several hours, sometimes even not until the next day; and in these delayed cases, sleep, when it does come, is prolonged and dull. In a certain number of cases sulphonal fails to act satisfactorily, and, in these, nausea, mental excitement, vomiting, dizziness and staggering, headache and depression have been observed after its use.

It may be given dry on the tongue, but is best given in hot milk, or soup, or beef-tea, with plenty of salt. Large amounts of warm fluids favor its absorption, and as it is often slow in action it is better given early in the evening. Average dose, gr. xii.-0.75 Gm.

Hypnone. Not Official

A hypnotic, produced chemically as a derivative of alcohol. A colorless liquid having a strong odor of almond or orange. It is not dangerous, and leaves no ill after-effects except a disagreeable odor to the breath.

Average dose, gr. v.-0.3 Gm., in capsule, being insoluble in water.

Urethan. Not Official

A combination of carbonic acid and ethylic ether, sometimes used as a hypnotic. Its action is rather uncertain, and resembles paraldehyde. It has no power over pain, is not depressing or irritating to the stomach, and under favorable circumstances has induced sleep in 15 or 20 minutes, and prolonged it for 6 or 8 hours. It is soluble in water, and may be given hypodermically, as it is not irritating.

Average dose, gr. viii.-0.5 Gm., best given in pellet, wafer, or capsule.

Amylene Hydrate. Not Official

An alcohol derivative, with properties as a hypnotic, its power being considered intermediate between chloral and paraldehyde. It is a clear liquid, soluble in 8 parts of water, and readily so in alcohol. It is agreeable to the taste and not dangerous, having, in medicinal doses, no depressing effect. Very large doses paralyze the respiratory centre, and also the heart.

Average dose, e xxx-2 mils.