(Compiled by Atwater).

Weights of nutrients and calories of energy (heat units) in nutrients required in food per day.

NUTRIE

NTS.

Protein.

Fats.

Carbohydrates.

Total.

Potential energy.

Grammes.

Grammes.

Grammes.

Grms.

Calories.

I. Children up to a year and a half..

28 (20-36)

37 (30-45)

75 (60-90)

140

767

2. Children of two to six years

55 (36-70)

40 (35-48)

200 (100-250)

295

I,4l8

3. Children of six to fifteen years....

75 (70-80)

43

(37-5o)

325 (250-400)

443

2,041

4. Aged woman

80

50

260

390

1,859

5. Aged man

100

68

35o

518

2,477

6. Women at moderate work (Voit)..

92

44

400

536

2,426

7. Man at moderate wok (voit)

118

56

500

674

3.055

8. Man at hard work (voit)

145

100

450

695

3,370

9. Man with moderate exercise (Play-fair).........................

119

51

531

701

3,139

10. Active labour (Playfair)

156

71

568

795

3,629

11. Hard labour (Playfair)

185

71

568

824

3,748

12. Women with light exercise (Atwater)

80

80

300

460

2,300

13. Man with light exercise (Atwater).

100

100

360

460

2,820

14. Man at moderate work (Atwater)..

125

125

450

700

3,520

15. Man at hard work (Atwater)

150

150

500

800

4,060

16. Man at moderate work (Moleschott)

130

40

55o

720

3,160

17. Man at moderate work (Wolff)....

120

35

540

695

3.032

Church furnishes the following table showing the number of tons which it is calculated could be raised through the height of one foot by the complete combustion of a single pound of each kind of food. In the body only about a fifth of this energy would develop work, the rest going into heat production:

1 pound beef fat raises 5,649 tons 1 foot high.

" oatmeal " 2439 " " "

" gelatin " 2,270

" lean beef " 885 " " "

" potatoes " 618 " " "

" milk " 390 " " "

" ground rice " 2,330 " " "

Landois and Stirling give the following table, which differs, somewhat from other estimates in the relative proportion of fats and starches. An adult doing a moderate amount of work takes in as food per diem:

C.

H.

N.

0.

120 grammes albumin, containing....

64.18

8.60

18.88

28.34

90 " fats, containing

70.20

I0.26

9.54

330 " starches, containing....

146.82

20.33

162.85

281.20

39.19

18.88

200.73

Add 744.11 grammes O. from the air by respiration.

" 2,818.00 " H20.

" 32.00 " inorganic compounds (salts).

The whole is equal to three kilogrammes and a half (seven pounds), i. e., about a twentieth of the body weight, so that about 6 per cent of the water, about 6 per cent of the fat, about 1 per cent of the albumin, and about 0.4 per cent of the salts of the body are daily transformed within the organism.

An adult doing a moderate amount of work eliminates in grammes:

Water.

C.

H.

N.

0.

By respiration

330

248.8

?

65I.I5

By perspiration

660

2.6

7.2

By urine

1,700

9.8

3.3

15.8

11.1

By feces

128

20.0

3.0

3.0

I2.o

2,8l8

281.2

6.3

18.8

681.45

The following table is a fair average work ration in round numbers, based on such data as those in the foregoing tables;

Estimated Work Ration, Maximum and Minimun (Mrs. E. H. Richards).

For one day.

Proteid, grammes

125

110

Fat, grammes

125

90

Carbohydrates, grammes

450

420

Calories

3,500

3.000

About thirty grammes of salts should be added to this (Landois). The bare subsistence ration is much less, as follows:

Estimated Ration to barely Sustain Life (Mrs. E. H. Richards).

For one day.

Proteid, grammes

75

Fat, grammes

40

Carbohydrates, grammes

325

Calories

2,000

Professor Egleston's standard of nutrition is high. He places the daily allowance of nutritive material at 700 grammes, divided as follows: Carbohydrates, 400 grammes ; fats, 150 grammes; proteid, 150 grammes; yielding in all, 3,650 calories.

The average percentage of the different food classes needed to sustain a man in perfect health is thus given in the Kensington Museum Handbook on Food:

Percentage.

Water....................................................

81.5

Albuminoids or flesh formers

3.9

Starches and sugars

10.6

Fat

3-o

Salt (Nacl)

0.7

Phosphates, potash salts, etc

0.3

An Ideal Ration with Solid Food (Mrs. E. H. Richards).

Material.

AMOUNT.

PROTEID.

FATS.

CARBOHYDRATES.

Calories.

Grms.

Oz.

Grms.

Oz

Grms.

Oz.

Grms.

Oz.

Bread

453.6

16

31.5

1.12

2.26

0.08

257.28

9.04

1,206.82

Meat

226.8

8

34.02

I.20

11.34

0.40

243.72

Oysters

226.8

8

12.52

O.44

2.04

0.07

....

70.OI

Breakfast cocoa.

28.3

1

6.60

O.23

7.50

0.26

9.60

0.34

135.42

Milk..........

113.4

4

3.63

0.13

4.42

0.16

4.88

0.17

75.55

Broth.........

453.6

16

18.14

O.64

18.14

0.64

90.72

3-20

613.21

Sugar

28.3

1

27.36

0.96

112.17

Butter

14.17

0.14

12.27

118.62

Total .............

106.80

....

57.97

389.84

2,575.52

It will be observed that the totals are somewhat less in this diet than those of the table at the top of this page, which was adapted for a working man, who is developing more calories.