While held fast in the ice, and still on the steamer, the average allowance of food per day was about four pounds, but some complained of being hungry on this ration. Several men suffered severely from lead poisoning from the solder used in canning tomatoes, traces of lead being found on examining the contents of the can. The acid of the tomato acts upon the solder, forming a soluble lead salt. The cans, however, had been kept for a period of two years before their contents were eaten (De Long). (See Canning, p. 284).

In the voyage of the Jeannette to the arctic zone in the polar expedition of i879-'8i a very liberal diet was allowed the sailors on entering the arctic regions, the average quantity of food allotted per man per diem being a ration of 5.5 pounds. Meat was furnished three times a day. Fat was supplied in the form of pork and butter, and bread and potatoes made the bulk of the starchy diet, constituting about two thirds of the whole amount of food. The diet at first included large quantities of condensed milk, butter, eggs, oatmeal, cheese, and macaroni, together with a great variety of canned fruits and vegetables and dried fruits, such as apples, peaches, dates, figs, prunes, and raisins.

In Lieutenant A. W. Greely's account of the expedition (Three Years of Arctic Service) he says: "The amount of food per man each day actually eaten in over two years at Fort Conger was as follows:

Meat................................................. 26.8 ounces.

Canned vegetables...................................... 10.0

Sugar and sirup ....................................... 5.3

Farinaceous articles..................................... 13.6

Canned fruits.......................................... 4.7

Dried fruits, preserves, fruit, butter, and pickles............ 2.9

"This aggregate of 64.3 ounces would doubtless be increased by coffee, chocolate, tea, spices, condiments, etc., to nearly seventy ounces. This amount may reasonably be assumed as the quantity of food necessary for the maintenance of a man's health in a latitude such as Conger (81 ° 44' N.), where the actual temperature is 40 F. (200 C.)." He adds that tomatoes proved to be the most serviceable vegetable, and apples and peaches the best fruits. The beverages consisted of coffee, tea, chocolate, cider, and a small quantity of rum, the latter averaging two gills weekly for each man, which he regarded as beneficial from the effect it had upon the cheerfulness and good humour of the men. Meat in the above table included fat, in the shape of pemmican (four ounces), butter, lard, pork, and bacon.

The hours for meals were as follows: Breakfast, 7 a. m. Dinner, 4 p. m., and two lunches. The latter consisted of hard bread and butter, tea and coffee. The typical menu was as follows:

Breakfast

Corn beef, oatmeal, fresh bread, chocolate, or coffee.

Dinner

Vegetable soup, baked pork and beans, corn bread, stewed peaches, and coffee.

On sledging expeditions it was important to reduce the weight and bulk of the food to a minimum; accordingly in the Greely expedition of 1882 the daily allowance for sledging expeditions was thirty-nine ounces, to which was added an ounce of lime juice. The lime juice was carried solidified in the form of small squares, in which form it proved refreshing and invigorating to the exhausted men. This constituted the ration of the first year, 1882. Greely writes:

"On the above ration of 1882 parties kept the field for forty days in a mean temperature below zero 17.80 C, and returned in health and strength".

In 1883 the experience of the previous year led him to modify the ration by replacing part of the bread with butter and meat. This modified ration consisted of -

Meat................................................. 22 ounces.

Butter................................................. 2 "

Vegetables............................................. 4 "

Bread.................................................. 10 "

Sugar.................................................. 2 "

Milk................................................... ounce.

Tea or chocolate........................................ 1 "

Salt.................................................... "

Pepper................................................. 1/20 " with an allowance of six ounces of alcohol for cooking the food of a party of three or four people; therefore the ration contained 40.5 ounces besides beverages. Greely says again: "Three fourths of the ration were about equal quantities of pemmican, bacon, and frozen musk-ox meat, while the balance was made up of canned sausages and corned beef in about equal quantities " (Three Years of Arctic Service, vol. i, pp. 202, 203). He suggests as a still further improvement that the vegetable ration should consist of three ounces of preserved potatoes, the remaining ounce being replaced by half an ounce each of milk and extract of beef tea, which is the best drink for the arctic regions. It should be chiefly used in the field in the form of an extract. A little coffee is preferable to chocolate.

The latter was found to induce thirst during the day. Tea should be compressed or used as an extract. Curry paste and other powerful condiments were also found serviceable. Alcohol was not considered necessary as a food.

During the third winter of his arctic expedition, from November 1, 1883, to June 23, 1884, Greely's per capita ration for his entire party was:

Meat.....................4.0 ounces.

Beef extract............... 0. 26 ounce.

Evaporated potato.........0.4

Soup..................... 0.6

Tomatoes................. 0.3

Peas.....................0.2 •'

Corn.....................0.2 "

Carrots...................0. 1 "

Bread.................... 6.0 ounces.

Dog biscuit............... 0.8 ounce.

Butter..................... 0.5 ounce.

Lard...................... 0.26 "

Rice...................... 0.1

Raisins.................... 0. 16 "

Tea, compressed........... 0.3 "

Extract of coffee............ 0.44 "

Extract of chocolate......... 0.3 "

Milk...................... 0.2 "

Mulberries................. 0.2 "

It is noticeable that alcohol is omitted from this ration. C. E. Borchgrevink (First on the Antarctic Continent, 1898-1900) made extensive use of dried vegetables, and such articles as ham, bacon, curry and rice, cheese, dried fish, sardines, jam, marmalade, and cocoa.

The usual estimate for the total quantity of all food material, including solids, water, and respiratory oxygen as well, which is consumed by a healthy adult male per annum is one and a half ton.

Following is the estimate of total food supply for eighteen months for one man in the Yukon region. The total weight, about one ton, is considerably less than that of food ordinarily eaten, owing to the fact that fruit and vegetables must be carried in an evaporated condition.

" The chief items are 600 pounds of flour, 300 pounds of bacon, 150 pounds each of beans and sugar, 75 pounds each of rolled oats or other mush material and cornmeal, 50 pounds of rice, six dozen cans of condensed milk, 35 pounds of butter in sealed cans, 150 pounds of evaporated vegetables, 100 pounds of evaporated fruit, 50 pounds of prunes and raisins, 30 pounds of dried fish, 40 pounds of coffee, with baking powder, soda, salt, pepper, ginger, mustard, yeast cakes, tea, soap, matches, lime juice (very important), dried beef, extract of beef, soups in tins, sausage, tobacco, etc., as desired, bearing in mind always that variety of food promotes health. There has been more or less said in the newspapers about various concentrated foods, but, with the exception of evaporated vegetables and fruit, condensed preserves, condensed milk, and beef extract, nothing yet has been brought forward which has been proved desirable. One cannot afford to experiment with his stomach in Alaska." (New York Evening Post, July 6, 1898).

Men eat about two thirds of all the meat, and women one third. Men consume about four fifths of all the alcoholic beverages, and women one fifth. The latter consume much more tea than men.

Soyer has computed tables of the total quantity of foods consumed by a man during his lifetime. He estimates that a man during sixty years of life after early childhood eats 33 tons of meat, vegetables, and farinaceous food, and that an ordinary man by the time he has attained to seventy years has consumed 30 oxen, 200 sheep, 100 calves, 200 lambs, 50 pigs, 1,200 fowls, 300 turkeys, 24,000 eggs, 4.5 tons of bread, and 3,000 gallons of tea and coffee.