This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
(Published In 188) )
The Isabella Home is an institution founded by Oswald Ottendorfer, Esq., and completed in 1889, in the northern part of Manhattan Island (at Tenth Avenue and One Hundred and Ninetieth Street), as a hospital and home for sick and aged persons.
It is a large building with granite walls, fireproof interior, and natural wood finish, and designed to accommodate 200 inmates, besides Sisters of Mercy, nurses, attendants, servants, etc. The architects were William Schickel & Co., of New York, and the plumbing and gasfitting was done by Oliver Barratt, of the same city.
The building is four and five stories high above the basement, and consists essentially of a center portion about 60x200 feet flanked by a hospital wing of 60x100 feet at each end, the whole inclosing three sides of a rectangle, whose fourth side is partly occupied by a detached three-story brick stable building, with carriage-house and coachman's apartments. The plumbing system in the main building comprises four lines of 2-inch fire pipe, with hose cocks on each floor, eight main distribution lines of hot and cold water and six main lines of soil pipe, connected with a private sewer to the city system several blocks away. There are, besides, three main soil-pipe lines in the stable.
All water pipe-is of galvanized iron, bronzed, and all soil pipes were extra heavy cast iron tested, after fitting, by air pressure of about 10 pounds per square inch (21 inches of mercury). All pipes were entirely exposed and everywhere accessible, and never closer than 1 inch to the finished wall or ceiling; most of them were offset much further than 1 inch, affording ample opportunity for calking joints, setting fixtures, and for painting around them. All horizontal lines were suspended below the ceilings, and the cleaning holes for soil pipes were placed below the ceilings. There are 18 general toilet-rooms, containing 28 water-closets, six urinals, 36 washbowls, 18 bathtubs, and 18 slopsinks.
There are two servants' rooms in the basement, that together contain two double washbowls, four water-closets, one urinal, and one slopsink. There are, besides, two detached washbowls, nine porcelain sinks for butler's pantry use, etc.: three kitchen iron sinks, three basement sinks for receiving the discharge from drip and waste pipes, etc.; two iron sinks for chambermaid's use, one iron sink in the boiler room and one iron sink in the dead-house. In the coachman's apartments are laundry tubs, two kitchen sinks and boilers, and two water-closets.
In the stables is a horse trough, carriage washer, and numerous hose cocks and draw cocks, and there are about a dozen lawn sprinklers; all water is supplied from the city mains through a 3-inch pipe, and all the soil and drain pipes are served by a 12-inch terra-cotta sewer pipe from the outside walls to the city sewer.
Figure 3 shows the receiving tank and boiler in the basement adjacent to boiler-room. A is a wrought-iron tank about 10x6 feet and 5 feet deep.
Water from the city main is received through the 3 i ch pipe B and ball cock C, and is pumped out through the 3 inch suction pipe D.
The 2-inch emptying pipe F is branched above its valve G to afford a supply to the boilers through the 2-inch pipe E independent of the roof tanks or pumps. H is a 3-inch overflow. The boiler I, about 10 feet long and 4 feet in diameter, is supported above A, as shown by iron beams J J, on columns K K, and contains two 100-foot steam coils that are supplied with live or exhaust steam through L and return it through pipes M and M. N is a 2-inch pipe supplying cold water from the roof tank, and O is a check valve to prevent any upward flow. T is a 1-inch supply to lawn sprinklers, and Q is a ¾-inch branch to sink faucet. R is the 2-inch hot-water supply and has a ¾-inch branch S to the sink faucet. T is the ¾- inch emptying pipe. U is the 2-inch (increased above to 2½ inches) force pipe from the adjacent pump to the roof tanks; it can be emptied by ¾-inch drip pipe V. W is a 1 ½-inch safe waste and X is a 2-inch trap vent pipe. Y is an iron sink receiving the discharge from pipes H, T, and W, and emptying to sewer through trap Z.
Figure 4 shows diagrams of the twin roof tanks A and A. They are built of 5/16-inch wrought iron and are each about I2x8'x6' deep. B is the 2 ½-inch force pipe from the pump, filling the tanks through their independent valves C and C. D is a 2 ½-inch delivery for house supply, and can draw from either or both tanks by regulating valves E E. On the opposite side of the tanks the overflow pipe F discharges into the roof gutter, and the tanks may be emptied through the 3-inch pipe G that discharges into a sink on the next floor beneath.
Figure 5 shows a portion of one tank and its tie-rods and the details of support.
•Fig. 3 • Plumbing in the Isabella Home .N .Y.
PLUMBING IN THE ISABELLA HOME, NEW YORK CITY.
Figure 6 shows the hose bracket, designed by Mr. Barratt, to fasten on the fire-line pipe instead of against the wall as is customary. A is the fire line and E is the hose cock, H is the hose supported on bracket B that swings on hinge blocks C C. A thin steel band D passes through a slot in C and is sprung over the pipe A and tightly clamped by set screw F.
Figure 7 shows the arrangement of hinge block and band, and Fig. 8 is a section through Fig. 7, showing in solid black the pipe A, that is omitted for clearness, in Fig. 7.
Figure 9 is a section at W W of Fig. 10. and Fig 10 is an elevation from V V, Fig. 9; both show the method adopted for carrying the soil and trap vent pipes, as A, through the roof. B B is the top and C the riser of a small board step just at the top of a hub D. A sheet of lead E is flanged into the hub and its upper edge is laid under the slates F, and its lower edge is laid on top of them; the next section of pipe is then joined on and calked at G, as usual.