This section is from the book "Plumbing Plan and Specifications", by J. J. Cosgrove. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing plans and Inspection.
THE plumbing work in theaters may be conveniently divided into three different groups, each classified according to the purpose which it serves. The work and fixtures included in group No. 1 are intended solely for the accommodation and convenience of patrons of the theater. The work and fixtures in group No. 2 are for the use of the players while the fixtures in the final group are for the employees of the theater. As the patrons of a theater are restricted to the tier where their seats are located, whether gallery, balcony or orchestra - separate accommodation should be provided on the different tiers - a toilet room or, perhaps, smoking, lounging and toilet room for the men and a retiring and toilet room for the women. So far as the public is concerned, no further toilet accommodations will be required.
For the convenience of the players a lavatory with hot and cold water should be provided in each dressing room, while the leading actor usually has a complete toilet room adjoining the dressing room. In addition, in that part of the building where the dressing rooms are located liberal toilet provision must be made for the actors, chorus and supers, both male and female, and a shower will be found a great convenience for actors in performances where tumbling, turning or like violent exercises are performed.
The mechanical installation for the theater and fixtures for the employees begin first in the manager's office, adjoining which a toilet room should be provided. In addition, in some part of that portion of the building taken up by the stage, wings and flies toilet accommodations must be provided for the stage hands and general employees, while near the engine room a toilet room will be required for the engineer and his help.
In order to be prepared for spectacular productions, in which there will be a water scene requiring a large tank of water, an extra large water main should be extended into the building, with all necessary controlling valves, so temporary connections can be made to temporary tanks or the water piped to other points to produce waterfalls or other water effects. The size of water main should be calculated in each case, so that the tank can be filled in the minimum time.
Not less important than filling the tank is the emptying of it, and a sufficiently large waste pipe to the sewer should be provided for this purpose, with all necessary valves and outlets where temporary connections can be made.
Fig. 113 South Park Commissioners' Armour Square. Typical of Other Small Parks, Chicago, 1906
The pumps, sprinklers, systems, tanks and all the necessary piping and apparatus for fighting fire should likewise be included in the mechanical installation, but fire pumps and piping belong more to fire-fighting apparatus than to the sanitary layout and will not be considered here.