In the next example, Fig. 418, we have the square-dial type of 1710, the hour ring broad, the seconds dial circle slightly cutting into its inside edge, the winding-holes ringed, - to prevent scratching of the matted surface of the dial with the winding-key, - well pierced hands, but now trenching over their particular divisions on the hour ring; and elaborated cherub-head spandril corners. Fig. 419 is the succeeding style, differing very little, excepting in the greater breadth of the Arabic numeral ring, and the corner-pieces of amorini supporting a crown capped by a Maltese cross. Fig. 420 has the earlier corner-piece of Fig. 418, but the hour ring of 1710-15. This example may be classed as the last phase of the square dial.
Opinions are divided as to the date of the earliest arch dials, and I am inclined to the view that they did not become fashionable until between 1720 and 1725. The earliest specimen known is the large Tompion clock in the Pump Room at Bath.
I have twice seen a replica of this in private hands. The Pump Room clock was made about 1709, but the arch was evidently more than an innovation at this period; it was a discovery. A curious fact, and one showing how paramount were the dictates of fashion in the early eighteenth century, is that the very early arched dials are really the older square form with the arch added. The junction of the arch and the dial is sometimes hidden by a strip of brass, but in other examples the joining of the two is frankly revealed.
The true arch dial, that is, one which was made specifically as such, and in the one piece, of the very earliest type, is rare. Fig. 421 is an example. The arch fulfils no function beyond one of ornament, being filled by a silvered ring, inscribed "Tempus Fugit," flanked by dolphin spandrels.
It is a significant sign of an arch dial from 1725 to 1735 that the hour ring is divided into quarters between each numeral on the inside edge. In later clocks this is always omitted.
Fig. 439. Markwick, London. - 8-day Clock. Green lacquer case. - 9 ft. 4 ins. total height. - Date about 1735-40. - Percy Webster, Esq.
From 1740 to nearly 1765 long-case clocks were sparingly made in London and the important southern county towns. The fashion evidently veered from the long-case to the bracket clock, as the latter were plentiful enough during this period. After 1765 the long-case dial loses much of its earlier interest. Clocks being taller, and the dial in consequence being placed at a greater height, the general features become coarser. Many fine clocks were made in this late bold style, Fig. 422 being a noteworthy example. This clock strikes, chimes and plays tunes, no less than fifty hammers being used, operated from the spiked drum shown in the illustration. These drums were usually made so that one could be removed and another substituted. The four subsidiary dials, on the corners, regulate the chiming and playing. The arch has the usual moon-work, a revolving disc, numbered with the days of the lunar month, and a fixed pointer in the centre. The days of the calendar month are shown through the aperture under the hands, on either side are the month and day, respectively, and above, the number of the month itself.
This clock is of Dutch make, but others of similar elaboration were made in this country. A noticeable point of difference between the early and late arch dials is that the arch of the former is always less than half a circle, but the latter is always either a full half-circle or even more.
" Grandfather " Clock Cases.
Fig. 440. Walter Smith, Cuckfield. - 8-day Striking Clock. - Dead-beat escapement. - Green lacquer case. - Date about 1760-70.
The cases of these so-called " Grandfather " clocks of the Stuart, Orange, Queen Anne and Georgian periods can be classified as follows : From 1670 to 1715 we find the panelled ebony or ebonised cases (which are always early) being made side by side with those veneered with plain walnut or inlaid with marqueterie. From 1715 to about 1740 we get the plain walnut case, generally veneered with wood of rich figure.
Fig. 441. Walnut Case, Arch Dial, With Cornice Arched To Correspond With The Dial.
Fig. 442. Walnut Case, Arch-Dial Clock, By John Ellicott, Square Cornice Over Arch.
Lacquered cases overlap, from 1705 to 1760, but they are rare before 1715. From 1740 to 1765 long-case clocks are exceptional, and after this latter date mahogany, either solid or in veneers, is almost exclusively employed. It is hardly necessary here to give a number of examples of each class, - although the types are very numerous, - as the subject has already been dealt with, in full detail, in "English Domestic Clocks." For the same reason, and also because this book is intended as a guide to the collector, to show him what to ■collect, rather than what to avoid, examples of the declining period, when the long-case clock became depraved in the hands of the small provincial and even the important Yorkshire makers, have been omitted. Those who desire information on these points can be referred to the larger book.
Marqueterie cases can be resolved into several classes or kinds, although, with some reservation, these are not indicative of late or early date. There are many reasons, and a certain •amount of evidence., for the assertion that many of these marqueterie cases were made in Holland to the order of the celebrated makers of the period from 1690 to 1720. The reasons for this conclusion have been stated, at considerable length, and in full detail, in "English Domestic Clocks," and there is neither reason nor space for a recapitulation here. If this theory be admitted, however, the various styles may easily be, and probably were, older than the era of the importation of these marqueterie cases into England, and differences in decoration were probably dictated, either by the stock of the Dutch case-maker, or the personal predilections of the English horologist. There is no doubt that the cases inlaid with simple marqueterie, such as Fig. 407, are usually earlier in date than those in the full marqueterie style, but once this type of case was admitted to the fashionable clock-making world, - it was persistently rejected by Tompion, and only tolerated by Knibb in his later clocks, - any co-ordination of style and date ceased to exist.