Higgs And Evans, Royal Exchange.

Fig. 443. Higgs And Evans, Royal Exchange. - 8-day Clock in red lacquer case. - An example made for the Spanish market. - 8 ft. 2 ins. high. - Dial 16 1/2 ins by 12 ins.

Mahogany Case With Concave Cresting To The Hood.

Fig. 444. Mahogany Case With Concave Cresting To The Hood. - 1750 type.

With the exception of the early star and fan inlay, we can divide marqueterie into "all-over," panelled and mosaic. Further classification of the marqueterie itself into coloured, monotone, arabesque, etc., might be attempted, but it would be almost necessary to make a separate class for each clock, and this system, therefore, must be abandoned. Generally speaking, however, coloured marqueterie, especially when the ornament is of jessamine leaves and flowers of white or stained green ivory, in a ground of dark wood, is earlier than the inlay of yellow holly or sycamore in walnut. Panelled ornament, as a rule, is earlier than " all-over " marqueterie, but this is subject to wide exceptions.

The form of the long-case itself undergoes a defined progressive change from 1680 to 1710. Apart from miniature or "grandmother" clocks, - that is, those which were specifically made of exceptionally small size, - hoods were usually made for 10-inch dials up to 1690, and from thence to 1700 the 11-inch dial was the rule. In the case of month and year clocks, where greater space under the dial was required for the extra wheels of the trains, these measurements were usually exceeded. One almost invariable custom, before 1695, was to make the bold moulding, under the hood, of convex form, and after that date of concave section. Domes above the hoods, with flanking, and often surmounting spires, were the general fashion, with important clocks, after about 1695, before which date the hoods were roofed and left square. Cases veneered and panelled with ebony are always early, and generally of Dutch manufacture. Corkscrew pillars flanking the hood are earlier, in style only, than plain columns, and the latter, when in original condition, and when attached to marqueterie cases, were always inlaid to correspond. To veneer circular columns implies that the veneer is in a state of great strain, and it readily peels off, especially if the case be exposed to damp. The former presence of marqueterie on these columns can usually be detected by two fillets remaining, of veneer thickness, above the base and below the astragal rings under the capitals.

Mahogany Case With Concave Cresting To The Hood.

Fig. 445. Mahogany Case With Concave Cresting To The Hood. - 1770 type.

Walnut Case Grandmother Clock.

Fig. 446. Walnut Case "Grandmother" Clock. - 1750 type (very rare).

Mahogany Case, Regulator Clock.

Fig. 447. Mahogany Case, Regulator Clock. - Dead-beat escapement. 1790 type.

Satinwood Long Case Clock.

Fig. 448. Satinwood Long-Case Clock. - In the form of a balloon bracket clock on a pedestal, c. 1800.

A review of these early long-case clocks would not be complete without an example of the finer work of Dan Quare, a maker whose work appears to have varied from the very highest class to the most mediocre. He had a most extended business career, was born in 1649, admitted to the Clockmakers' Company, in 1671, became Master in 1708 and died in 1724. He was a member of the Society of Friends and was buried in their ground at Bun-hill Fields. He was clockmaker to the first of the House of Brunswick, but this appointment was only made a few years before his death, and when he was quite an old man. His finest work was done from about 1685 to 1700, in Exchange Alley, that centre of the clockmaking craft close to the Royal Exchange. Quare specialised in clocks of exceptional duration; at least four-year clocks by him being known. Mr. Wetherfield has one, another is at Buckingham Palace, a third at Hampton Court and I have since seen a fourth in a country house. It is probable that there are others. Figs. 423 and 424 illustrate a fine month clock by Quare, in a burr-walnut veneered case. The hour hand, of broad spade form, is typical of this maker, and the case, although plain, is of beautiful quality. I am of opinion that Quare only adopted the marqueterie case grudgingly, and for his later, and poorer work. When we consider the time and thought which these old makers expended on their clocks, it must have been annoying to have had them considered merely as pieces of furniture, and prized solely for the decorative quality of their cases. Before dismissing these fascinating square-dial clocks from our notice, it will be as well to pass, in an orderly progression, a few types of cases in rapid review. Fig. 425 is a Tompion case in panelled ebony, the dial of which has already been shown in Fig. 417. Fig. 426 is a case veneered with floral marqueterie, panelled, in a background of figured walnut. Fig. 427 is an example of all-over marqueterie, and without superstructure to the hood. Fig. 428 has the dome and spires to the hood. Fig. 42c), which is reduced in the same proportion as Fig. 428, is a charming miniature clock with a skeleton dial. In Fig. 430, the marqueterie is more of the Arabesque type, and the hollow moulding, below the hood, is decorated with carved and gilt trusses. The finials are also of carved and gilt pine, to correspond. Fig. 431 is a tall month clock by Charles Clay, 9 ft. high, and with a 12-inch dial, similar in type to Fig. 430. Fig. 432 approaches to the seaweed kind of marqueterie, and Fig. 433 is an excellent example of the mosaic inlay already referred to. Fig. 434 departs from the square-dial form, and is very exceptional for this reason, as when the arch dial came into vogue, marqueterie was a bygone fashion. This is a late example, probably of about 1720-5, and the clock has a square dial with an added arch. Its dial is shown in Fig. 435, where the join of the arch to the dial can be clearly seen.