This section is from the book "Lathe Design, Construction And Operation, With Practical Examples Of The Lathe Work", by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also available from Amazon: Lathe Design: Construction And Operation.
It will be noticed in the engraving of the front of the lathe that all movements, including those of reversing, are controlled by levers in the front of the apron, so that the operator need not, necessarily, leave his place for this purpose.
A 21-inch swing lathe with a 10-foot bed weighs 3,800 pounds.
This company manufacture several other types of lathes and lathe attachments, which will be illustrated and described later on in this work and in connection with similar devices built by other makers.
It is said in a catalogue now on the author's desk that "the name Hendey-Norton has come to be generally recognized as being the pioneer in that class of lathes made commercially successful, having the mounted system of gearing for thread and feed changes." As to how far this claim is correct, is a proper matter for the mechanical public to judge. The phrase "commercially successful" seems to have been well put in connection with the statement and may possibly be its "saving grace," for it is well known that as early as 1868 Humphreys used the much discussed "cone of gears," and that he wrote in his patent, "I place my gear-wheels upon a shaft A, ranging from the smallest to the largest," while in 1892 Norton says in his patent, "on the shaft A, and within the box B, are secured a series of gear-wheels E, of varying diameters, arranged step-like," etc. As to who was the pioneer may be an open question, as are a great many relating to the matter of patented inventions.
In Fig. 233 is shown a front elevation of the Hendey-Norton lathe of 24-inch swing, and is a late development of this establishment. The head-stock is provided with a "tie" from front to rear housing, which gives additional rigidity to the head-stock and prevents undue vibration of the spindle and its work. The spindle, which is bored out to 1 3/4 inches, runs in annular bearings of special metal and having taper bearings for the journals. The front bearing is 3f to 4f inches in diameter and 7 1/8 inches long, while the rear bearing is 3 1/4 to 4 inches in diameter and 5 1/4 inches long. Both these journals are not only self-adjusting, but adjustable, independent of each other, and allow for contraction and expansion of the spindle without disturbing the adjustment. The bearings are also self-oiling, having automatic oiling rings, running in large reservoirs of oil, with provision for catching the oil and returning it to the reservoir for use over again.
Fig. 233. - 24-inch Swing Engine Lathe built by the Hendey Machine Company.
The construction of this spindle and its appendages for the smaller lathes is well shown in the longitudinal section given in Fig. 234, which shows a very clever piece of mechanical construction and one well adapted to the purposes for which it is designed.
This view in connection with the end elevation and partial section given in Fig. 235 shows the internal construction of the feeding and thread-cutting mechanism and the gearing necessary to accomplish the results according to Norton's plan.
Fig. 234. - Longitudinal Section of the Head-Stock of the 24-inch Hendey-Norton Lathe.
The lathe is provided for automatically stopping the carriage in either direction when either feeding or thread cutting, and for reversing the travel of the carriage by an apron lever.
Fig. 235. - End Elevation of the 24-inch Hendey-Norton Lathe.
The spindle cone has but four steps instead of five, as is usual with other makers, their diameters being from 6 to 15 inches and adapted for a 3|-inch belt. The lathe will cut threads from 1 to 56 per inch and has a turning range of feeds from 5 to 280 per inch. The 24-inch swing lathe will turn 15 1/2 inches over the carriage. The tool-post takes in tools 5/8 by 1 1/4 inches. The carriage has a bearing of 34 inches on the bed and is provided with a strong and well designed apron, excepting for the fact that worms and worm-gears are still retained as a part of their construction, notwithstanding the fact that even the best construction of this type is liable to injury from the carelessness of the operator and the lack of a plentiful supply of oil. The tail-stock is strong and rigid, and carries a 2 7/8-inch spindle bored and reamed for a No. 4 Morse taper. The weight of a 24-inch swing lathe with a 10-foot bed is 5,450 pounds, by which it will be seen that it is relatively a heavy lathe, considerably more so than that of many of its competitors.
This firm make other types or modifications of their lathes, and also some very desirable attachments and accessories for lathes which are illustrated and described under their appropriate headings further on in this work.
The Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Company have turned out some good examples of modern machine tool building, in the recent types of their engine lathes, showing much consideration and study of the conditions surrounding the manufacturing problems of the present day. This is noticeable in their 20-inch swing engine lathe, a front elevation of which is shown in Fig. 236.
In this lathe the back gear quill and pinion are of forged steel instead of cast iron, as usual, whereby great strength and durability may be expected of this part, which in ordinary lathes not infrequently fails and has to be renewed. The cone pinion is also of forged steel. The main spindle is of 55 point carbon-steel and hammered, and has a 1 3/4-inch hole through its entire length. The front bearing is 3 1/2 inches in diameter and 5 3/4 inches long, and both bearings are accurately ground and the boxes have an oil reservoir beneath them from which oil is raised by small buckets attached to a brass ring located midway on the journal, thus insuring abundant lubrication. Gage glasses at the front of the head-stock show the level of oil in these reservoirs, which are deep enough to permit sediment to settle at the bottom out of reach of the oil-raising buckets, thus keeping the lubricant on the journal clean and in good condition. The thrust collar is of steel, hardened and ground.