Simultaneous Use of Hand Tools and Machines. Machine shop work is usually understood to include all cold metal work in which a portion of the metal is removed to make the piece of the required shape and size either by power-driven or hand tools. However, there are some branches of cold metal work, such as sheet-iron work and coppersmithing, that are not usually included in machine shop work.

As the hand-operated tools are much simpler, and as the operations performed with them are in every case more typical, their description and use should precede that of power-driven tools. It should be clearly understood, however, that machine shop practice involves the use of both classes at the same time. Even hand tools are not used in the same order on different classes of work; it is, therefore, impossible to describe them in the order of use. Simplicity of construction and operation will be the guide for treatment in the following pages.