"Such was the great simplicity and utility of this Invention, that notwithstanding the assignee of the Patent, Mr. Russell, had made a very considerate sum of money by the Patent, the Privy Council advised the Crown to extend the period for which the Patent was granted from 14 to 20 years."

"GEORGE ROYL, Walsall, Stafford, Whitesmith. Patent granted 21st March, 1831, for an Improved method of making Iron Pipes, Tubes, or Cylinders."

"This Patentee proposed to use two grooved rollers placed in front of the furnace, so that the prepared tube when it was heated to a proper welding heat should bo drawn out and welded by the rollers; and to facilitate the working, the upper roller was capable of being separated from the under one by which the tube could be moved between the rollers, and when the upper roller was brought to the lower roller and motion communicated to them, the tube was run out of the furnace and welded. The tubes being thus welded, were to be passed through dies, to give them a better shape: this invention was put into use by Messrs. Dixon & Co. of Wolverhampton. This mode of manufacture was declared to be an infringement of Whitehouse's Patent because the welding was by circumferential pressure without any mandril or internal support being employed."

FREDERICK EDWARD HARVEY, of Tipton, Staffordshire, and JEREMIAH BROWN, of the same place. Patent granted 3rd February, 1836, for oar-tain Improvements in the process and machinery for manufacturing Metallic Tubes, and also in the process or machinery for forging or rolling metal for other purposes." " In this invention grooved rollers were employed, and the principal novelty consisted in the mode of supporting the mandril, which was a short instrument placed and fixed in front of the rollers, and in such manner that the enlarged head came just in the pinch of the rollers, and in working, the heated tube was to be forced over the short cranked stem of the mandril, the unclosed seam of the tube being sufficiently open to allow it to pass the fin by which the stem of the mandril was carried."

"THOMAS HENRY RUSSELL, of Handeworth, Warwick, Tube-maker. Patent granted 3rd May, 1836, for improvements in making or manufacturing welded Iron Tubes."

"This Patentee proposed to make welded iron tubes without first turning up the Iron plate from end to end, and the invention consisted of only turning up a few inches of the length and then by apparatus placed in front of the furnace, to cause the plate of iron when in a welding state to be first turned into the shape of a tube, and the welding was simultaneously to go on by means of dies or by rollers in the manner of Whitehouse's Invention before mentioned"

"RICHARD PROSSER, of Birmingham, Civil Engineer. Patent dated 27th March, 1840, for improvements in machinery or apparatus for manufacturing Pipes."

"This Patentee proposed to use a combination of three or four rollers. When four rollers are employed they are formed with grooves all exactly equal to the quadrant of a circle, and with edges bevelled at 45 degrees, so as collectively to make up the entire circle. The four rollers are connected with equal wheels, in order that they may travel with the same velocity. The end of the thin strip of iron is bent to the circle, and when at the proper heat the rollers carry it forward, and depose the welded tube upon a long mandril smaller than the bore of the tube, and placed immediately opposite the rollers: the mandril serves to support the tube whilst in its heated and soft state. Large numbers of tubes have been made in this manner by the four rollers, and when three only are employed they embrace one-third of the circle instead of the fourth."

"THOMAS HENRY RUSSELL, of Wednesbury, Staffordshire, and CORNELIUS WHITEHOUSE, of the same place. Patent granted March 7th, 1842, for improvements in the manufacture of welded Iron Tubes."

"This Invention has for its object a mode of welding very thin iron tubes when making lap joints, and the tubes were particularly intended for steam boilers. The invention consisted in using a mandril of small diameter, when compared with the intended diameter of the tube, and the tube was welded by passing the tube with the mandril in it between grooved rollers or through bell-mouthed dies, the hole being of an oval shape: bo that when making the weld the mandril was set fast in the tube throughout its length, but on passing the welded tube through dies with a circular opening, the tube was made cylindrical, thus allowing the mandril to be readily withdrawn in consequence of the smallness of its diameter, when compared with that of the tube. The pressure of the roller or dies was made to act first on the outer edge of the lap joint, then on the inner, and lastly on the central part; the three processes being accomplished at one heat, and the diametrical line upon which the pressure was applied, became for the time the shorter diameter of the oval."

"JAMES ROOSE, of Wednesbury, Stafford. Patent granted 9th May, 1843, for an Improvement or Improvements in the mode or method of manufacturing welded Iron Tubes."

"This Invention consisted of a mode of using dies, and also rollers with grooves and mandrils, in a peculiar manner which does not appear to have come into use."

"JOHN JAMES RUSSELL, and THOMAS HENRY RUSSELL, of Wednesbury, Staffordshire, Tube Manufacturers. Patent granted July 24, 1844."

"This Invention was for the welding of the larger class of tubes for boiler and such like purposes, and consisted of a moving hollow bed on which the prepared tube in an unwelded state was placed; and the bed with the tube passed under a grooved roller. A fixed mandril being used on the inside of the pipe over which the pipe moved, so as to give support and resistance where the weld was taking place. The end of the tube being fixed to the hollow bed, the movement of the bed necessarily carried with it the tube, and caused it to pass over the mandril and under the pressing or welding roller."