"BENJAMIN COOK, of Birmingham. Patent dated 28th March 1808 for a method of making barrels for fowling pieces, muskets, pistols and other similar fire-arms and ramrods for the same."

" The Patentee proposed three plans of making barrels, in one only of which was there any welding."

" The first plan consisted of forging or otherwise producing a round bar of iron or other proper metal of a short length as compared with the intended barrel, and then a hole was drilled in the same, and it was proposed to elongate the barrel by draw plates similar to wire drawing but having a mandril in the barrel, or the elongation was to be effected by grooved rollers using a mandril inside the barrel."

" The second plan was to turn a short plate of iron or steel over a mandril or beak iron, and to weld it by hand, then to elongate the barrel so produced by drawing through holes in dies or by grooved rollers as before, using a mandril inside the barrel when elongating it."

" The third plan consisted of taking a circular plate of metal, and then by successively forcing it through a series of holes in a die it was proposed to raise it into the shape of a cup, and then having done so the cup was to be elongated by drawing it through holes in a die or by means of a pair of grooved rollers, using a mandril on the inside of the barrel when elongating it; none of these plans succeeded, and they never came into public use."

"HENRY JAMES AND JOHN JONES, of Birmingham. Patent granted 26th July 1811, for an improvement in the manufacture of barrels of all descriptions of fire-arms and artillery."

"There are two methods of welding barrels described in this invention. First the plate of iron was to be turned over into the shape of a barrel, so that the edges should be brought into a position for welding, a part of the barrel being heated to a welding heat, was to be placed on a hollow anvil having several grooves to correspond with the barrel, and then by a series of hammers, worked by machinery, the heated part of the barrel was to be welded; a stamp or mandril being inserted in the barrel when welding. And secondly, the Patentee proposed to use grooved rollers, the grooves being of the figures of the barrel, and a mandril was to be used. This appears to be the first invention of the use of grooved rollers to weld barrels of fire-arms."

"HENRY OSBORN, of Bordesly, near Birmingham, Sword and Gun Barrel Maker. Patent granted 1st of March 1817, for a new method or principle of producing cylinders of various descriptions."

"The Patentee had a previous patent for turning the plates of iron ready to be welded into barrels or cylinders, and this was done by grooved rollers, the present patent was for using grooved rollers as a means of welding cylinders or gun barrels and it consisted in using similar grooved rollers to those described by James and Jones; but in this patent a mode of using a mandril was described very different to that suggested by James and Jones, and it is by means of these inventions that by far the largest proportion of gun barrels have ever since been welded in Birmingham."

"The novelty in using the mandril consisted in this, there was to be a shield fixed on the mandril so as to prevent the mandril being drawn through between the grooved rollers when welding a cylinder or barrel thereon. In using the mandril it was inserted into an unwelded barrel (the barrel being at a welding heat) and conveyed thereon to the rollers, the mandril being retained by stops which prevent the shield passing; thus the barrel, as it was welded by the rollers, was drawn off the mandril, the mandril keeping the bore open and preventing the iron from being rolled into a solid mass. In this manner was the weld made, and then by repeatedly heating the barrel or cylinder, and passing it between grooved rollers with a succession of mandrils, the barrel or cylinder was drawn out to the desired length."

" JAMES RUSSELL, of Wednesbury, Gas Tube Manufacturer. Patent granted 19th January 1824, for an Improvement in the manufacture of Tubes for Gas and other purposes."

" This Patentee proposed to weld iron tubes or barrels by means of a hollow hammer and tool, and it was intended that the tube to be welded should be held in the hollow tool and receive blows by the hollow hammer, and this welding was to be done either with or without the aid of a mandril. And then having welded the tube or barrel it was to be shaped interiorly and exteriorly by means of a pair of grooved rollers and a mandril with a large head, over which the grooved rollers were to move the welded tube or barrel. This Patent failed of success. It was found that the hollow hammer and correspondinghollow tool would, if they embraced the barrel, have no effect on it, and if the barrel was too large in diameter for the hollow, it would only be crushed by the sides of the hammer and the hollow tool."

"CORNELIUS WHITEHOUSE," of Wednesbury, Stafford, Whitesmith. Patent dated 26th February, 1825, for certain Improvements in Manufacturing Tubes for Gas and other purposes."

" This Invention was the first to suggest that a tube might be formed and welded by simply applying external pressure without internal support, and the inventor described the means of accomplishing the welding and shaping of iron tubes for gas and other purposes, to consist of, first, turning up the plates of iron so that the edges would come together or nearly so, and then about half the length was to be heated to a welding heat, and by means of a draw bench such heated part of the prepared tube was to be drawn through a bell-mouthed die, which might be formed in the shape of a pair of tonga with handles to open or close the two halves of the die, or the two halves might be opened or closed by a screw. The inventor did not confine himself to the particular construction of the dies, and it was held by a Court of Law that grooved rollers capable of giving complete circumferential pressure when no internal support of a mandril was resorted to, was within the claim of the Patentee."