The simpler examples of these works are easily produced upon cylinders, knobs, and other small solids, with the ordinary turning tools, by turning them into curves grouped together to represent the features; they show the same profile upon both sides of the axis, but nevertheless have some effect when the features copied admit of sufficient accentuation. Turned as rings, the outer and inner edges and the surfaces may receive different profiles forming a complete outline, displayed when the ring is cut up into sections. A method largely followed in shaping the forms of animals and other wood toys, many of which are turned in softwood as large rings, and then sliced up with the paring knife, fig. 8 Vol. I., into small segments to be finished by hand.

With increased care the ring may be turned with the separate hand turning tools, to exactly represent any given section, such as that of the human head; the application of the tools being facilitated, by turning the surfaces to fit templates cut out to parts of the outline. Profile turning is still more exact if the cutting edges of the tools are shaped to the form desired ; and the work having first been prepared nearly to the form with separate tools, as in using all large moulding tools, the profile tools at once reduce the outline to its exact proportions. These tools may be met with, but as the most acceptable, the author has constructed a series of four tools after Mr. Wyon's beautiful head of her Majesty Queen Victoria.

The wood or ivory ring under formation, fig. 757, shown cut in halves and of its original rectangular section to exhibit the application of the tools, is first turned true as to height and thickness; and is then reduced nearly to the form upon its outer cylindrical edge, with separate small tools. The profile tool, fig. 758, serving first as a gage for their direction, after which it is itself used to cut all along the contour. The end surface and the inner cylindrical edge, are then treated in a similar manner, the edge of the tool, fig. 760, being shown in position travelling outwards diagonally to the original square section of the ring, to undercut the back of the head. The ring is reversed upon the chuck to turn the fourth side with fig. 761. All four profile tools are then returned to and more carefully employed to finish the outline, and to reduce the height or width of the section, should that be desirable. For turning the external surfaces, the ring is held from within upon a solid wood plain chuck, with one of its faces in contact with the shoulder, and for the internal portions, in a wood spring chuck, its upper or under surface in like manner in contact with the true face turned within the chuck. The finished profile ring is cut radially into thin slabs, subsequently made parallel, to be fixed down upon the surface of other works; or into thicker pieces, to be mounted upon pedestals.

Profile Turning 400399