For injuries to the possession of a joint estate or to rights growing out of possession, the co-tenants should sue jointly.79 Joint tenants at common law must join in an action affecting the title,80

72 Mccurdy v. Canning, 64 Pa. St 39; Ames v. Norman, 4 Sneed (Tenn.) 683; Arnold v. Arnold, 30 Ind. 805.

73 Peabody v. Minot, 24 Pick. (Mass.) 329; Barnes v. Lynch, 151 Mass. 510, 24 N. E. 783; Butler v. Roys, 25 Mich. 53; Rector v. Waugh, 17 Mo. 13; Simpson's Lessee v. Ammons, 1 Bin. (Pa.) 175. Rights of curtesy and dower in joint estates have already been considered, ante, pp. 79, 92. For the words of limitation necessary to pass a fee in conveyances by joint owners, see ante, p. 37.

74 Porter v. Hill, 9 Mass. 34; Varnum v. Abbot, 12 Mass. 474. So, also, as to levy of execution, Bartlet v. Harlow, 12 Mass. 348; Starr v. Leavitt, 2 Conn. 243; Butler v. Roys, 25 Mich. 53; Peabody v. Minot, 24 Pick. (Mass.) 329; Thompson v. Barber, 12 N. H. 563.

75 Scott v. State, 1 Sneed (Tenn.) 629. Cf. Stevens v. Town of Norfolk, 46 Conn. 227, and Stevens v. Battell, 49 Conn. 156.

76 Ante, p. 334.

77 Wilken v. Young (Ind. Sup.) 41 N. E. 68; Duncan v. Forrer, 6 Bin. (Pa.) 193. But see Nichols v. Denny, 37 Miss. 69. The interest of a joint tenant may be sold on execution. Midgley v. Walker, 101 Mich. 583, 60 N. W. 296.

78 l Washb. Real Prop. (5th Ed.) 684.

79 Decker v. Livingston, 15 Johns. (N. Y.) 479; De Puy v. Strong, 87 N. Y. 372; Daniels v. Daniels, 7 Mass. 135; Gilmore v. Wilbur, 12 Pick. (Mass.) 120. As on a joint lease for the recovery of rent. Sherman v. Ballou, 8 Cow. (N. Y.) 304; Wall v. Hinds, 4 Gray (Mass.) 256. But see Hayden v. Paterson, 51 Pa. St. 261.

80 Wheat v. Morris, 21 D. C. 11; Marshall v. Palmer, 91 Va. 344, 21 8. E. 672; Webster v. Vandeventer, 6 Gray (Mass.) 428; Dewey v. Lambier, 7 Cal. 347. But see Lowery v. Rowland, 104 Ala. 420, 16 So. 88; Morgan v. Hudnell (Ohio Sup.) 40 N. E. 716.

But by statute in some states tenants of joint estates may join or not, as they choose.81 Tenants in common and co-parceners cannot bring joint action when the title is involved.82