Ambroise Pare, a French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, in 1517, died in Paris, Dec. 22, 1590. He went to Paris in his 17th year, and his progress in surgical study was so rapid that in 1536 the captain general of French infantry, Rene de Montejan, appointed him surgeon to his troops and took him to Italy. After his return to Paris he was elected provost of the college of surgery. In 1552 he was appointed surgeon to Henry II., and afterward to Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III. He exerted a great influence upon practical surgery, but his reputation rests mainly upon three important improvements: 1. The treatment of gun-shot wounds by simple dressings, instead of boiling oil or the actual cautery, which had been thought necessary on account of the supposed poisonous nature of such wounds. 2. The application of the ligature to blood vessels after amputation, to prevent haemorrhage, instead of the actual cautery. This was almost as great an improvement as the first, and one of still wider application. 3. The rule that in searching for a bullet the patient should be placed in the same posture as at the moment of receiving the wound.
The first edition of his complete works appeared at Lyons in 1562, and the last, edited by Dr. Mal-gaigne, with notes, at Paris in 1840-'41 (3 vols. 8vo). They were translated into English by T. Johnson (fol., London, 1634).