Bar-Cokheba, Or Bar-Cochebas, the leader of a Jewish insurrection during the reign of Hadrian, killed A. D. 135 or 136. His real name is believed by some critics to have been Simeon, but his followers called him Bar-Cokheba (son of a star), and applied to his appearance the prophecy of Balaam, "There shall come a star out of Jacob," etc. The harshness of the Roman rule in Judea made the people eager for an insurrection, and Bar-Cokheba was readily supported by the great rabbi Akiba and his numerous disciples. In 131 he gathered a large army, took Jerusalem and other important places, proclaimed himself the Messiah and ruler of the Jews, and had coins struck in his own name. Hadrian ordered Julius Severus from Britain to the scene of the insurrection. Jerusalem was retaken and the whole province desolated, but Bar-Cokheba long maintained himself at Bethar, fighting obstinately, and falling when that fortress was finally stormed. All his prominent followers were executed. The insurrection cost hundreds of thousands of lives, and was followed by greater oppression than ever.